Ko'proq

Varaqalar chizishidan foydalanib sharhlar qo'shish

Varaqalar chizishidan foydalanib sharhlar qo'shish


Men foydalanuvchi xaritamni ochishi va izohlarni markerlar shaklida tashlab qo'yishi uchun varaqalar chizilgan plaginini ishlatadigan dastur ustida ishlayapman. Keyin foydalanuvchi yuborishni bosishi mumkin va u menga chizilgan qatlamga geoJSON sifatida sharhlar bilan xizmat qiladi. Boshqa foydalanuvchilar bir-birlarining izohlarini ko'rishlari muhim emas, men ularni keyinroq kompilyatsiya qilishim uchun joy va sharhga ehtiyojim bor. Meni to'g'ri yo'nalishga yo'naltiradigan ikkita manbani topdim, lekin ularni birlashtirishda muammolarga duch kelmoqdaman va mening JavaScript-ni eng yaxshisi dahshatli. Mana men foydalangan resurslar

Leaflet Draw - markerga yoki belgiga sarlavha qo'shish

To'ldirilgan ko'pburchakni qanday saqlash kerak mysql jadvaliga leaflet.draw

Yuqorida keltirilgan manbalarni sozlaganimdan keyin menda shu narsa bor…

var drawControl = yangi L.Control.Draw ({chizish: {ko'pburchak: yolg'on, ko'p satr: yolg'on, to'rtburchaklar: yolg'on, aylana: noto'g'ri,}, tahrirlash: {xususiyatiGroup: DrawItems}}); map.addControl (drawControl); map.on ('draw: created', function (e) {var type = e.layerType, layer = e.layer; chizilganItems.addLayer (qatlam); var shakli = qatlam.toGeoJSON () var shape_for_db = JSON.stringify ( var popup = L.popup () .setLatLng (layer.getLatLng ()) .setContent ('shakl); qaytish shakli_for_db;Shakl nomi


Shakl ta'rifi


') .openOn (xarita); }); function savePopup () {var sName = $ ('# shapeName'). val (); var sDesc = $ ('# shapeDesc'). val (); var drawings = drawingItems.getLayers (); chizmalar [chizmalar. uzunlik - 1] .title = sName; chizmalar [chizmalar. uzunlik -1] .content = sDesc; map.closePopup (); };

Yuqoridagi narsalarni o'zimning risolamda ishlatganimda, men ochkolarni tashlay olaman, ularning har birida popup paydo bo'ladi va "Saqlash" tugmachasini bosganimda yo'q bo'lib ketadi, lekin nima sodir bo'layotganini aniq aytolmayman. Nimada nima ishlashini ko'rish uchun bir nechta qaytarish buyruqlarini kiritishga harakat qildim, lekin men hech narsa olmadim. Ushbu narsani disk raskadrovka qilish bo'yicha biron bir maslahat bormi?


Iltimos, mahsulotni reklama qilishni kechiring, lekin ma'lumotlar bazasini boshqarishni qoldirib yubormoqchi bo'lsangiz, xususiyatlarga yozish uchun Esri bulutli xususiyatli xizmatni saqlash va ochiq kodli Esri Leaflet plaginini sinab ko'rishingiz mumkin.

keyinchalik SQL va fazoviy so'rovlarni bajarishingiz va GeoJSON-ni chiqish formati sifatida belgilashingiz mumkin.

http://patrickarlt.github.io/uc-2014-esri-leaflet/demos/editing.html eskizlarini chizish uchun Draw plaginini o'z ichiga olgan namuna.

https://developers.arcgis.com saytida bepul ishlab chiquvchi hisob qaydnomasini yaratib, asboblarni sinab ko'rish uchun oyiga 50 ta bepul kredit olishingiz mumkin. bu sizga 200 MB dan ortiq xususiyatlarni saqlash xizmatini taqdim etadi va sizning ma'lumotlaringiz bo'yicha individual so'rovlar bepul.

tegishli havolalar: Esri Leaflet API ma'lumotnomasi va misollari

namunaviy REST so'rovi

Oshkor qilish: ArcGIS Hub / oss @ esri


Excel 2013 da geografik (joylashuv) ma'lumotlarini tasavvur qilishning 4 usuli

Excel 2013 ma'lumotlar tahlilchilarining barmoq uchlarida yangi vizualizatsiya va ma'lumotlarni tahlil qilish platformasidan (PowerView) tortib to bir qator yangi yo'naltiruvchi funktsiyalargacha, shuningdek, kuchli xotira ma'lumotlariga qadar bir qator yangi va qiziqarli xususiyatlarni taqdim etadi. sukut bo'yicha yoqilgan modellashtirish vositasi (PowerPivot).

Ushbu barcha xususiyatlar orasida yangi Excel geografik va joylashuvga asoslangan ma'lumotlarni vizualizatsiya qilish uchun bir nechta turli xil variantlarni taqdim etadi, har bir vizualizatsiya texnikasi boshqa maqsadga xizmat qiladi (o'ziga xos xususiyatlar to'plami bilan) yoki butun Excel foydalanuvchisining ma'lum demografik segmentiga yo'naltirilgan. tayanch. Bu Excel-da geografik ma'lumotni tasavvur qilishning ba'zi texnikalarini taqdim etgan qisqa post.

Power View-da xaritalar

Power View-da xaritalarni boshqarish geografik ma'lumotlarni vizualizatsiya qilishda interaktiv va izlanuvchan yondashuvni taklif qiladi, ularning barchasi juda yorqin Silverlight-ga asoslangan Power View xromiga o'ralgan.

PowerView-da bo'lish bu foydalanuvchiga xaritani vizualizatsiyasini o'rganishda yordam beradigan aqlli filtrlar, slicers va dicers yaratish imkoniyatini beradi. Bu erda xaritani boshqarish har xil qoplamalar bilan moslashtiriladi (issiqlik xaritalaridan tortib to to'rtburchaklargacha va hk) va ba'zi bir o'lchovli qiymatlar ustiga, shu bilan birga tajriba qilishga arziydigan boshqa xususiyatlar bilan plitka qo'yish mumkin.

PowerView-ga joylashtirilgan xaritani vizualizatsiya qilishning yana bir bonusi shundaki, siz uni PowerPoint-ga osongina eksport qilishingiz mumkin, bu sizning taqdimotingizdagi vizualizatsiyani juda chiroyli tarzda baham ko'rishga imkon beradi. PowerPoint-da interaktiv vizualizatsiya qilish uchun jadval modelini (ehtimol PowerPivot-da yaratilgan) SharePoint-ga yuklashingiz kerak.

PowerView-da GeoView-da ishlashga yordam beradigan Excel 2013 da PowerView-dan foydalanib xaritani vizualizatsiyasini qanday yaratishni ko'rsatadigan juda ozgina video mavjud.

GeoFlow vizualizatsiyasi

Excel GeoFlow loyihasi ma'lumotlarning ajoyib (kamroq foydali bo'lsa ham) geo-asosli vizualizatsiyasini yaratishga qaratilgan. Bu salqin ko'rinish va aslida foydali bo'lish o'rtasidagi o'zaro kelishuvdir.

GeoFlow-ni xaritani ko'rish vositasi sifatida ishlatishning ijobiy va salbiy tomonlarini tushuntirib beradigan Graham Lanniganning ajoyib maqolasi mavjud, bu vizualizatsiya vositasining asosiy maqsadi - bu Yerning salqin 3D modelini taqdim etish, uning ichiga ingl.

GeoFlow shuningdek, & # 8220 qisqa film & # 8221 (PowerView Maps-da vaqt ketma-ketligiga asoslangan analayzani slayder sifatida qo'llab-quvvatlaydi) uslubida vaqtga asoslangan ajoyib vizualizatsiyani amalga oshiradi, shuningdek foydalanuvchilarga grafikalar va boshqa ingl. geo ma'lumotlarini tahlil qilish.

GeoFlow haqida mening shaxsiy fikrim shuki, u hali boshlang'ich bosqichida va ba'zi bir ishlarni talab qiladi, uning toza va ingl. Ajoyib vositasi, ammo ma'lumotlar tahlil qilish vositasi sifatida maqsadga muvofiq emas, ayniqsa sizning ma'lumotlaringiz geografik jihatdan kam bo'lsa.

Bing Maps Excel ilovasi

Agar siz geologik ma'lumotlarni xaritada klassik Excel varag'ida aks ettirish yo'lini izlayotgan bo'lsangiz, Bing Maps Excel 2013 App javob beradi.

PowerView & # 8217s Map control-ga o'xshash (lekin to'liq emas) funktsionallik, Bing xaritalari foydalanuvchilarga to'g'ridan-to'g'ri ma'lumotlar varag'ida to'g'ridan-to'g'ri xaritada vizualizatsiya yaratishga imkon beradi, bu ma'lumotlar tahlilchilari uchun juda kuchli vosita, xususan, ma'lumotlar, ularning ingl. rasmlarini & # 8220meatier & # 8221 (masalan, GeoFlow yoki PowerView Maps kabi) variantlardan birida rasmiylashtirishdan oldin.

Ushbu dasturning eng ajoyib elementlaridan biri shundaki, u mahalliy Bing Maps api-dan foydalanganligi sababli, u barmoq imo-ishoralari yordamida xaritani kattalashtirish / kichraytirish yoki harakat qilish imkonini beruvchi & # 8220touch-screen & # 8221.

Geografik issiqlik xaritasi Excel ilovasi

Geografik issiqlik xaritasi - bu geografik ma'lumotlarni namoyish qilish uchun mo'ljallangan yana bir Excel 2013 dasturi.

Afsuski, geografik issiqlik xaritasi ilovasi hali ham yosh mahsulotdir, demak u xaritani vizuallashtirish vositalarida mavjud bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan ba'zi xususiyatlarga ega emas, masalan, turli xil qatlamlar yoki global qamrov (Geographic Heat Map faqat AQSh xaritasini o'z ichiga oladi), lekin men, albatta, geografik ma'lumotlarni tasavvur qilishning muqobil usuli sifatida kuzatib boring.

Hozircha, Excel 2013 uchun dasturlarni yaratish qanchalik osonligini hisobga olsak ham, yaqin orada xaritalarni vizualizatsiya qilish uchun ko'plab dasturlar paydo bo'ladi deb o'ylayman. Sizdan Excel App Store-da vizualizatsiya va samaradorlik uchun juda foydali bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan ko'plab dasturlarni tekshirishni qat'iyan talab qilaman.


Bu DbfMatchingPlugIn sinfining Census Block maydonlarini moslashtirish uchun olingan sinfi.

Bu DbfMatchingPlugIn sinfining Census Block Group maydonlarini moslashtirish uchun olingan sinfidir.

Bu DbfMatchingPlugIn sinfining Aholini ro'yxatga olish varaqalarini moslashtirish uchun olingan sinfi.

Bu mos keladigan shaharlar uchun DbfMatchingPlugIn sinfining olingan sinfi.

Ushbu sinf koordinatalarni moslashtirish funktsiyalarini amalga oshiradi. CoordinatesMatchingPlugin mos keladigan operatsiyalarni bajarish uchun serveral DBF va R-Tree indeks fayllaridan foydalanadi. street.dbf: ko'chalar uchun geografik bo'lmagan ma'lumotlarni o'z ichiga oladi. rt2.dbf: ko'chalar uchun koordinatali ma'lumotlarni o'z ichiga oladi. tlid.dbf: ko'cha TIGER chiziq identifikatori (TLID) va street.dbf-dagi indeksni o'z ichiga oladi. TLID tomonidan saralangan. zip.dbf: pochta indeksi ma'lumotlarini o'z ichiga oladi. rt2.ids va rt2.idx: zip-ko'chalar uchun R-Tree indeks fayllari.

Bu mos keladigan okruglar uchun DbfMatchingPlugIn sinfining olingan sinfi.

Ushbu sinf ko'cha manzillarini moslashtirish uchun MatchingPlugin sinfining olingan sinfidir.

Ushbu sinf mos keladigan operatsiyalarni DBF ma'lumotlar bazasida saqlaydi. Ushbu sinf yozuvlarni yaratish va qo'shish va DBF indeks fayllari uchun moslashtirish funktsiyalarini taqdim etadi. DBF faylida ustun nomi "ID_" bilan boshlanadigan bitta ustunli ustun va ustun nomlari "DT_" bilan boshlanadigan qo'shimcha ustunlar bo'lishi mumkin. Har bir DBF fayli uzunlik va kenglikni aks ettiruvchi "BB_CX" va "BB_CY" nomli ikkita ustunni o'z ichiga olishi kerak. Agar cheklov qutisi haqida ma'lumot bo'lsa, u to'rtta ustundan iborat bo'lishi kerak: "BB_ULX", "BB_ULY", "BB_LRX", "BB_LRY" yuqori chap X, yuqori chap Y, pastki o'ng X va pastki o'ng Y ni ifodalaydi. ikkilik qidiruv, yozuvlar DBF fayliga qo'shilishidan oldin saralanishi kerak.

Ushbu tuzilma DBF ustun ta'rifini aks ettiradi.

Ushbu ro'yxat DBF-da ustun turini aks ettiradi.

DbfMatingPlugin uchun ReadWrite rejimi.

Ushbu sinf Geocoding uchun asosiy sinfdir.

Ushbu sinf bitta o'yin natijasini anglatadi.

Ushbu sinf mos keladigan IP-manzillar uchun MatchingPlugin sinfining olingan sinfidir.

Ushbu sinf abstrakt sinf bo'lib, mos keladigan operatsiyalarni qamrab oladi. MatchingPlugIn klassi Geokodlashning asosiy klassidir. GeocoderFormalizer yordamida dastlabki matnni rasmiylashtiradi, ba'zi ma'lumotlar to'plamlariga mos kelishga harakat qiladi va MatchResult ob'ektini qaytaradi. MatchingPlugIn mustaqil ishlashi mumkin yoki murakkab mos keladigan talablarni bajarish uchun boshqalar bilan birgalikda ishlash uchun birlashtirilishi mumkin.

Ushbu ro'yxat o'yin holatining ikki turini belgilaydi.

PostCode-ga mos kelish uchun MatchingPlugIn sinfining olingan sinfi.

Bu soddalashtirilgan soundex algoritmini amalga oshiradigan Soundex sinfidan olingan sinf.

Ushbu sinf Soundex algoritmining mavhum sinfidir.

Ushbu sinf soundex-ga mos keladigan operatsiyalarni amalga oshiradi. DBF faylida soundex-ni moslashtirish uchun zarur bo'lgan ikkita ustun mavjud. Birinchisi, ma'lum Soundex algoritmlari tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan soundex qiymati (sukut bo'yicha bu SimplifiedSoundex tomonidan amalga oshiriladi). Ikkinchisi aniq qiymat.

Ushbu sinf mos keladigan holatlar uchun DbfMatchingPlugIn sinfining olingan sinfidir.

Ushbu sinf StreamLoading hodisasi uchun voqea argumentlarini ifodalaydi.

Ushbu sinf ko'cha manzillarini moslashtirish uchun MatchingPlugin sinfining olingan sinfidir.

Ushbu sinf Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Geocoding uchun mo'ljallangan.

Ushbu sinf pochta kodlariga mos keladigan funktsiyalarni bajaradi.

Ushbu sinf Qatlamlar va boshqa fazoviy sinflar bilan ishlashga ixtisoslashgan ba'zi usullardan iborat to'plamdir.


Ezmap-dan foydalanish

NCAR Graphics yordam dasturidagi odatiy tartib-qoidalar ba'zida odatiy argumentlar bilan aniqlanadi, lekin ko'pincha unga yordam dasturining bir yoki bir nechta parametrlari ta'sir qiladi. A & quotparameter & quot - bu yordamchi dastur parametrlarining xatti-harakatlarini boshqaradigan o'zgaruvchidir, parametr qiymatini o'rnatishi yoki olishlari mumkin bo'lgan parametrlarga kirish tartib-qoidalari orqali kirish mumkin.

Ezmap parametrlarini o'rnatish va olish bo'yicha ko'rsatmalar & quotMp 1.9 Ezmap parametrlari modulida keltirilgan: ular nima qilishadi va ulardan foydalanish. & Quot

Ezmap Yer xaritalarini ikki o'lchovli yuzaga proektsiyalashda uch xil proektsiyadan foydalanadi: konus, azimutal va silindrsimon. Konus proektsiyalari er yuzini konusga tushiradi, u erga bitta aylana bo'ylab tegib turadi yoki uni ikki xil aylana bo'ylab kesib o'tadi. Keyin konus bir nuqtadan og'ziga kesiladi va tekis qilib yoyiladi.

Matematik jihatdan, agar LAT1 va LAT2 konusning globus orqali o'tadigan kengliklari va LAT1 <> LAT2 bo'lsa, u holda & quotcone doimiy & quot:

bu erda shimoliy yarim sharda S = 1, janubiy yarim sharda S = -1.

CONE * 360 - tekislangan konusning yuzasi bo'ylab o'lchangan konus tekislikka ochilgandan so'ng kesmaning qirralari orasidagi burchakli ajratish. Agar (RLAT, RLON) proektsiyalanadigan nuqta bo'lsa, unda quyidagi formulalar chizilgan tekislikning proektsiyalangan nuqtasining koordinatalarini beradi.

bu erda CLON - markaziy meridianning uzunligi.

Agar LAT1 = LAT2 bo'lsa, unda konus globusga bitta standart parallel va bo'ylab tegib turadi

Konusning tepasi D = R / SIN (LAT1) tomonidan berilgan ekvator tekisligidan uzoqlikda joylashgan bo'lib, bu erda R - erning radiusi va LAT1 - bitta parallel parallel kenglik. E'tibor bering, LAT1 nolga yaqinlashganda, D cheksizlikka yaqinlashadi va LAT1 90 darajaga yaqinlashganda, erning radiusi D ga, R ga yaqinlashadi.

Butun Yer shari u / v tekisligiga chiqib, tepasi kelib chiqqan holda xanjarni olib tashlaydi. Ushbu proyeksiya buzilishsiz nisbatan erkin bo'lgan cheklangan darajadagi o'rta balandlik mintaqalarini tasvirlash uchun eng yaxshi qo'llaniladi. Lambert konformal proektsiyasi burchaklarni saqlaydi. MAPSET chaqiruvi bilan aniqlangan u / v tekisligining bir qismi chizish uchun foydalanuvchi koordinatalari tizimidir.

Ezmap yer xaritasini plotter ramkasida proektsiyalashda foydalanadigan ikkinchi turdagi proektsiya bu azimutal proyeksiyadir. Azimutal proektsiyalar Yer sharini xaridor tomonidan belgilangan nuqtada (PLAT, PLON) erga tegib turgan tekislikka xaritalaydi. Rasm foydalanuvchi tomonidan belgilangan ROTA burchagi bilan aylantirilishi mumkin.

    • 1. Erni 0 kenglik va 0 uzunlikda (Grinvich parallel ekvator bilan to'qnashgan joyda) tekislikka (bu erda u / v tekisligi deb nomlangan) teging, er tepada Shimoliy qutbga, pastda Janubiy qutbga yo'naltirilgan .
    • 2. V o'qi PLON tomonidan aniqlangan meridianga tegib turguncha erni qutb o'qi atrofida aylantiring.
    • 3. Erni aylantiring, qutblardan birini samolyot tomon burab, nuqta (PLAT, PLON) kelib chiqishi tekislikka tegguncha.
    • 4. Erni soat yo'nalishi bo'yicha ROTA burchagi orqali u boshidan o'tgan u / v tekisligiga perpendikulyar chiziq bo'ylab aylantiring.
    • 5. Yer shari ichida yoki orqasida joylashgan markaziy nuqtadan chiqadigan chiziqlardan foydalaning (proektsiyaga qarab) globusni u / v tekisligiga proyeksiyalash uchun.
    • 6. U / v o'qlari bo'ylab tarozilarni o'rnating.
    • 7. Olingan xaritaning to'rtburchaklar yoki elliptik qismini chizish. U / v tekisligining ushbu qismi foydalanuvchi koordinatalari tizimidir.

    Stereografik A 180 darajaga yaqinlashganda, R cheksizlikka yaqinlashadi. Butun globus butun u / v tekisligiga proyeksiyalanadi. Amalda, A tahminan 127 daraja yoki undan yuqori bo'lganida buzilish katta bo'ladi. Proektsiyaning markazi - bu er yuzidagi proektsion tekislik bilan teginish nuqtasiga qarama-qarshi bo'lgan nuqta.
    A & gt90 daraja ko'rinmas deb hisoblanadigan orfografik punktlar. Shunday qilib, yarim shar bir radiusli aylana ichida proyeksiyalanadi. Proyeksiyaning markazi cheksizdir. Barcha proyeksiya chiziqlari bir-biriga parallel va u / v tekisligiga perpendikulyar.
    Lambert teng maydoni A 180 darajaga yaqinlashganda, R 2 ga yaqinlashadi. Yer shari radiusi 2 doiraga proyeksiyalanadi.
    A & gt90 daraja ko'rinmaydigan gnomonik ballar. Shunday qilib, yarim shar butun u / v tekisligiga prognoz qilinadi. Amalda, A taxminan 65 daraja yoki undan yuqori bo'lsa, buzilish katta bo'ladi. Ushbu proektsiyaning markazi yerning markazidir.
    Azimutal teng masofadagi `A 180 darajaga yaqinlashganda, R ga yaqinlashadi. Yer shari radiusi a doirasiga proyeksiyalanadi.
    Asosiy sun'iy yo'ldosh ko'rinishi Ushbu formula faqat asosiy ko'rinish S1 = 0 bo'lganda qo'llaniladi.
    bu erda SA - masofa, yer radiusida, erning markazidan nuqtadan yuqoridagi yo'ldoshgacha (PLAT, PLON). COS (A) & lt 1 / SA ko'rinmaydigan ballar. Sun'iy yo'ldoshdan ko'rinadigan er yuzi qismi radiusi 1 doirada proyeksiyalanadi. Proektsiyaning markazi sun'iy yo'ldosh holatida. Sun'iy yo'ldosh oldinga siljiganida sun'iy yo'ldosh ko'rinishining proektsiyasi orfografik proektsiyaga yaqinlashadi. S1 va S2 ikkita parametrlari sun'iy yo'ldosh ko'rinishining proektsiyasini o'zgartirish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin, chunki ular erni ko'rsatish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin, chunki u belgilangan yo'nalishda ko'rsatilgan oddiy teshik kamerasiga qaraydi.

    Ezmapning uchinchi turi proektsion doiraga yer xaritasini proektsiyalash uchun foydalanadi - bu silindrsimon proektsiya. Silindrsimon proektsiyalar yerni xaridor tomonidan belgilangan nuqtadan (PLAT, PLON) o'tgan va foydalanuvchi tomonidan belgilangan ROTA burchagida burilgan katta aylana bo'ylab yerga tegib turgan silindrga tushiradi.

      • 1. Tasavvur qiling, er u / v (proyeksiya) tekisligining orqasida joylashtirilgan, shunday qilib 0 kenglik va 0 uzunlikdagi nuqta tekislikka 0 kenglik va 0 uzunlik bo'ylab tegib turishi uchun. Shimoliy qutb tepada, janubiy qutb esa pastki qismida joylashgan.
      • 2. V o'qi PLON tomonidan aniqlangan meridianga tegib turguncha erni qutb o'qi atrofida aylantiring.
      • 3. Qutblardan birini to'g'ridan-to'g'ri o'zingizga, ikkinchisini esa sizdan uzoqda (PLAT, PLON) nuqtasi u / v tekisligi boshlanguncha burab, erni aylantiring.
      • 4. Yerni soat yo'nalishi bo'yicha ROTA burchagi orqali 0 kenglik va 0 uzunlikdagi nuqtadan o'tgan u / v tekisligiga perpendikulyar chiziq bo'ylab aylantiring.
      • 5. U / v tekisligini dunyo bo'ylab o'rab, u o'qi erga katta aylana bo'ylab tegib turadigan silindr hosil qiling.
      • 6. Proektsiya turiga xos bo'lgan texnikadan foydalanib, geografik tasavvurlar, parallelliklar va meridianlarni silindrga er yuzasidan tashqariga chiqaring.
      • 7. Silindrni o'z o'qiga parallel va boshlanishiga qarama-qarshi chiziq bo'ylab kesib oling.
      • 8. Silindrni echib oling.
      • 9. U va v o'qlari bo'ylab chiziqli tarozilarni o'rnating.
      • 10. Olingan xaritaning to'rtburchaklar yoki elliptik qismini chizish. U / v tekisligining ushbu qismi foydalanuvchi koordinatalari tizimidir.

      Li, Tso-Xva, & quotUquvchilarning qisqacha ma'ruzalari, Ilmiy hisoblashda ishchi o'quv dasturi, & quot; NCAR, 1968 y.

      Parker, R.L., & quot2UCSD SUPERMAP: Butunjahon Plotting to'plami. & Quot;

      Steers, J.A., London Map University, Map Prognozlarini o'rganishga kirish, 1962 y.

        • 1. Kolorado shtatidagi Boulder 40,00 enlik va 105,15 uzunlik uzunligiga ega ekanligini hisobga olib, Boulder ustida markazlashtirilgan sun'iy yo'ldosh proektsiyasini chizib oling.

        ** Oddiy oq-qora xarita uchun kerakli qadamlar.

        Cmppos.f kod segmentining 1-chizig'i ko'rinish oynasining chap, o'ng, pastki va yuqori qismlarini chizgich ramkasining pastki chap burchagida joylashgan qilib o'rnatadi.

          • 1. cmppos misolidan foydalanib, uchastkani plotter ramkasining markaziga o'tkazing, lekin uni bir xil o'lchamda saqlang.

          Kerakli proektsiyani belgilash uchun MAPROJ dasturiga qo'ng'iroq qiling.

          Mpex05.f kod segmentining 1-satri ekranni yuqori qismida markaz xaritasi chizilgan bo'lishi uchun ko'rinish oynasini o'rnatadi. 2-chiziq orfografik proektsiyani tanlaydi va Shimoliy Afrikaning g'arbiy qirg'og'iga yaqin bo'lgan 0 kenglik va 0 uzunlik bo'ylab markazlashtiradi. 3-chiziq xarita proektsiyasini chizadi.

            • 1. Cezmap1 misolidan foydalanib, to'g'ri chiziqlar bilan silindrsimon teng masofada xarita tuzing.
            • 2. O'zingizning faylingizga cezmap1.f nusxasini ko'chiring va uni cezmap.f deb nomlang. Siz ushbu faylni keyingi mashqlarda moslashtirilgan oddiy xarita chizish tartibini yaratish uchun ishlatasiz.

            Agar asosiy sun'iy yo'ldosh ko'rinishi kerak bo'lsa, foydalanuvchi S1 yoki S2 ni o'rnatishi shart emas. Biroq, orfografik proektsiya o'rniga sun'iy yo'ldosh ko'rinishini olish uchun SA & gt1.0 ni o'rnatish kerak.

            Cmpsat.f kod segmentining 1-chizig'i bizni O'rta er dengizi haqida oqilona buzilmagan ko'rinishga ega qilish uchun proektsiyani o'rnatadi. 2-chiziq yo'ldoshni ikkita er radiusiga (taxminan 4000 milya masofada) o'rnatadi. 3 va 4-satrlar ko'rish burchagini bir tekis pastga qarab o'rnatgan va 5-chiziq bizning xaritamizni chizgan.

              • 1. Pekin, Xitoy taxminan 39-kenglik va 116-uzunlik bo'ylab joylashgan. Sun'iy yo'ldosh 2,5, 5 va 20 ta er radiusida deb taxmin qilib, shaharning o'ng tomonidan sun'iy yo'ldosh ko'rinishini chizib oling. Shuningdek, ushbu masofalarning har biri uchun S1 = 30.0 va 60.0 va S2 = 40.0 ni o'rnating.

              AQSh uchun shtat jadvallari mavjud bo'lsa-da, hozirgi paytda NCAR Graphics-da daryolar va tog'lar kabi yirik geografik xususiyatlar va boshqa mamlakatlarning viloyatlari kabi siyosiy xususiyatlar mavjud emas. Ushbu ma'lumotni dasturiy ta'minotning kelajakdagi nashrlaridan biriga qo'shishga umid qilamiz.

                • 1. Cmpou misolidan foydalanib, hech qanday siyosiy chegaralar qo'ymaslikka harakat qiling.
                • 2. O'zingizning cezmap.f versiyangizdan foydalaning (Mp 2.2 mashqlariga qarang), cezmap tashqarisida sizning ma'lumotlar to'plamingizni tanlashingiz uchun cezmap subroutine chaqiruv ketma-ketligiga parametr qo'shing. Natijalaringizni cezmap2.f bilan taqqoslang.

                Cmpou misolining 1-rasmida JLIM CO, PO yoki LI ga o'rnatilishi mumkin. Biroq, CO 2-rasmda ishlamaydi, chunki spetsifikatsiyaning zarur burchaklaridan biri rejalashtirilgan xarita maydonidan tashqarida. 3-rasmda faqatgina LI variant sifatida ishlaydi, chunki kerakli burchak va kerakli xaritaning butun tomoni proektsiya doirasidan tashqarida.

                Izoh: Ko'pgina kompilyatorlar PLIM1 orqali PLIM4 orqali xuddi xuddi real kabi muomala qilishimizga imkon beradi, shuning uchun biz JLIM = MA, CO, LI yoki AN bo'lganda kodda reallarni o'tkazishimiz mumkin.

                  • 1. Cmpou misolidan foydalanib, butun globusni chizish uchun JLIM-ni o'rnating.
                  • 2. AQShning kontinental qismi taxminan 22 va 47 kengliklari va -120 va -65 uzunliklari bilan chegaralanadi. AQShning kontinental xaritasini chizish.
                  • 3. O'zingizning cezmap.f versiyangizdan foydalaning (Mp 2.2 mashqlaridan), uni o'zingizning xarita proektsiyangiz chegaralaridan o'tadigan qilib o'zgartiring. Maksimal maydonni sun'iy yo'ldosh ko'rinishining proektsiyasini ishlab chiqarish orqali ushbu chegaralarni sinab ko'ring. Natijalaringizni cezmap3 misoli bilan taqqoslang.

                  Agar siz butun xaritani bir xil rangga aylantirmoqchi bo'lsangiz, GKSLCI va GSTXCI qo'ng'iroqlarini ishlatib, Ezmap parametrlarini C1 dan C7 ga o'rnatmasdan, polinel va matn ranglarini o'rnatishingiz mumkin.

                    • 1. cmpclr misolidan foydalanib, panjara chiziqlarini akva, materik chiziqlarini sariq rangga o'zgartiring.
                    • 2. O'zingizning cezmap.f versiyangizdan foydalaning (Mp 2.2 mashqlaridan), chiziq ranglarini siz tanlagan qiymatlarga o'zgartiring.

                    Belgilar Dashline yordam dasturi emas, balki GKS muntazam GTX yordamida chizilganligi sababli ular uchun MAPUSR-da kesilgan chiziq o'rnatishga urinmang.

                    MAPUSR-ning ushbu versiyasi xaritaning turli qismlarini chizish uchun chiziq chizig'i parametridan foydalanadi. Biroq, agar siz nuqta konturini belgilash uchun nolga teng DO ni nolga o'rnatgan bo'lsangiz, MAPUSR ning ushbu versiyasi hech qanday ta'sir ko'rsatmaydi.

                    MAPEOD, Ezmap tomonidan kontur ma'lumotlar to'plamidagi har bir segmentni tuzilishidan oldin tekshirish uchun chaqiriladi. Standart versiya hech narsa qilmaydi. Mpex03, mpex05 va mpex09 misollari sizga foydali bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan MAPEOD versiyalarini o'z ichiga oladi.

                    & Quotellipse & quot - har qanday tekislik geometriyasi matni bilan belgilanadigan yopiq egri chiziqning o'ziga xos turi.

                    A & quotlimb line & quot; bu Ezmap proektsion tekisligidagi, sharsimon sharning biron bir nuqtasi prognoz qilinadigan nuqtalardan globusning hech bir nuqtasi chiqmaydigan nuqtalarni ajratuvchi chiziq. Masalan, siz orfografik proyeksiyadan foydalanganda, globusning ko'rinadigan tomoni radiusi 1 bo'lgan aylananing ichki qismiga to'g'ri keladi va orfografik proektsiyaning kelib chiqishi & quotlimb & quot markazida joylashgan. Amaldagi proektsiyaga qarab & quotlimb chiziqlari & quot; to'g'ri chiziqlar, doiralar, ellipslar, parabolalar yoki giperbolalar bo'lishi mumkin. Limz chiziqlari Ezmap tomonidan taklif qilinmagan proektsiyalar uchun murakkab egri chiziqlar bo'lishi mumkin (ba'zan funktsiya yordamida aniqlanadi, ba'zan esa ko'pburchakni belgilaydigan X / Y koordinatalari jadvali yordamida aniqlanadi).

                    Cmpel.f kod segmentining 1 dan 3 gacha chiziqlari sun'iy yo'ldosh xaritasi proektsiyasini o'rnatdi. 4 va 5-qatorlar perimetri chizishni o'chirib qo'yadi. Ezmap geografik kontur bilan ajratish chizig'ini o'tkazmagan joylarni ko'rish uchun uchastkani ko'rib chiqing va bu fon o'chirilganligi sababli yuzaga keladi.

                      • 1. Cmpel misolidan foydalanib, xarita atrofida perimetr chizish.
                      • 2. cmpitm misolidan foydalanib, cmpmsk-ga qo'ng'iroq qilishdan oldin EL parametrini yoqing va uning uchastkada qanday farq borligiga e'tibor bering.
                      • 3. O'zingizning cezmap.f versiyangizdan foydalaning (Mp 2.2 mashqlaridan), perimetr va ellips variantlarini o'rnating.

                      Oddiy oq-qora xaritalarni ishlab chiqarish uchun maskalash va to'ldirishni talab qiladigan xaritalar uchun Areas yordam dasturidan foydalangandan ko'ra sizga kamroq qadamlar kerak.

                      MAPPOS, MAPROJ yoki MAPSET-ga qo'ng'iroq qilgandan so'ng Ezmap yordam dasturini ishga tushirish uchun MAPINT-ga qo'ng'iroq qilishingiz kerak.

                      Hozirda MAPINT-ga ko'p marta qo'ng'iroq qilish yaxshi. MAPINT-ga ma'lum bir vaqtda qo'ng'iroq qilish zarurligini yoki yo'qligini aniqlash uchun siz IN bayrog'ini tekshirishingiz mumkin (uni MPGETI-ga qo'ng'iroq orqali olish mumkin). Siz C1, OU, LA va shunga o'xshash ichki parametrlarni MAPINT-ga qo'ng'iroq qilishdan oldin yoki keyin o'zgartirishingiz mumkin, ammo Conpack-ga muvofiqligi uchun biz Ezmap parametrlarini ishga tushirishdan oldin o'rnatdik.

                      8-qatorda 10 daraja oraliqda tortiladigan panjara chiziqlari o'rnatiladi. 9-chiziq aniqlik parametrini 10 ga o'rnatadi, shunda xarita minimal protsessor va chizma vaqtini talab qiladi.

                      GD har bir kenglik va uzunlik egri chizig'idagi nuqtalar orasidagi masofani o'rnatadi. GD = 10 darajani o'rnatib, biz hisoblangan nuqtalar o'rtasida juda aniq bo'lmasligi uchun panjara chiziqlarini o'rnatamiz. Biroq, quyidagi birinchi mashq shuni ko'rsatadiki, egri chiziqlaridagi farq juda oz (CPU vaqti va CGM hajmi ikkalasi ham GD kichrayishi bilan tez o'sib borishini bilamiz). 10-chiziq Ezmap-ni ishga tushiradi va 11-chiziq panjara chiziqlari va ekstremal chiziqni (butun dunyo bo'ylab chiziq) chizadi.

                      Agar siz bir daraja bo'ylab kattalashtirish uchun idt-dan foydalanishni rejalashtirmoqchi bo'lsangiz, unda siz dunyo bo'ylab bir-biriga yaqinroq bo'lgan nuqtalar yordamida panjara chiziqlarini chizishni xohlashingiz mumkin, bu esa ushbu chiziqlar xaritada proektsiyalashning aniqligini oshiradi.

                        • 1. UNIX buyruq vaqtidan foydalanib, cmpgd misolini GD = .001 va yana GD = 1.0 bilan bajaring. Mashinangizdagi protsessor vaqtining farqi nimada? Ikkala uchastkani qog'ozga tushiring va ularning farqlarini solishtiring.
                        • 2. cmpgd.f yordamida panjara oralig'ini 20 darajaga o'zgartiring.
                        • 3. O'zingizning cezmap.f versiyangizdan foydalaning (Mp 2.2 mashqlaridan), o'zingizning asosiy dasturingizdan o'zgartirishingiz uchun subroutine chaqiruvingizga katak oralig'ini qo'shing.
                          • 1. cmpdd misolidan foydalanib, chiziqcha naqshlarini quyidagi ikkita ketma-ketlikdan foydalaning (qavslar bo'shliqlarni o'z ichiga oladi, ular chiziq chizig'iga kirmaydi):

                          10-satr yorliqlar chizilishini ta'minlaydi va 11-satrda yorliqlar hajmi taxminan 0,040 NDC ga teng bo'ladi. 12-chiziq Ezmap-ni ishga tushiradi, 13-qator panjara va oyoq chiziqlarini, 14-qator esa yorliq va perimetrni chizadi.

                          Agar LA o'chirilgan bo'lsa, MAPLBL hech qanday yorliq qo'ymaydi. MAPLBL, agar kerak bo'lsa (PE <> 0 bo'lganda), perimetrni chizish uchun javobgardir. Cmplbl misoli MAPLBL tomonidan chizilgan narsalarni ko'rsatish uchun oq rangdan va MAPGRD tomonidan chizilgan narsalarni ko'rsatish uchun yashil rangdan foydalanadi.

                            • 1. cmplbl misolidan foydalanib, perimetrni chizishni o'chirib qo'ying.
                            • 2. cmplbl misolidan foydalanib, yorliqlar hajmini standart qiymatga qo'ying, lekin LS = 1 ni o'rnatmang.
                            • 3. O'zingizning cezmap.f versiyangizdan foydalaning (Mp 2.2 mashqlaridan), sevimli yorliq variantlarini o'rnating.

                            12-satrda siyosiy va qit'a konturlarining nuqta chizilgan chizig'i ochiladi va 13-satrda ushbu kontur nuqtalari panjara hosil qiluvchi nuqtalarga qaraganda bir-biriga yaqinlashadi. 14-chiziq Ezmap-ni ishga tushiradi, 15-qator esa panjara va oyoq chiziqlarini chizadi. 16-qatorda yorliqlar va perimetr, 17-qatorda magenta konturlari chizilgan.

                            Odatiy bo'lib, kontinental konturlar Dashline yordam dasturining qattiq chiziqlari yordamida chiziladi. Agar siz nol qiymatini o'rnatgan bo'lsangiz, Ezmap Dashline tomonidan nuqta sifatida chizilgan kontinental konturlar ishlatilmaydi. DD nuqta orasidagi masofani boshqaradi.

                            Eslatma: Ko'pgina foydalanuvchilarga RE parametri kerak emas.

                              • 1. cmplot misolidan foydalanib, nuqtalarni 0,005 NDC masofaga qo'ying.
                              • 2. Cmplot misolidan foydalanib, qattiq kontinental konturlarni chizib oling.

                              Cmpdrw.f kod segmentining 12 va 13 qatorlari & quotMp 3.2 panjaralari: kenglik va uzunlik chiziqlarini chizish. & Quot 14 va 15 qatorlari oldingi modulda muhokama qilingan yorliq parametrlarini o'rnatgan. 16-satr siyosiy va kontinental konturlarning nuqta chizilgan chizig'ini burab, 17-satr esa nuqtali chiziqlarga qaraganda bir-biriga yaqinlashtiradi.

                              Yorliq 18-satrda MAPDRW-ni chaqirganda sodir bo'ladi. E'tibor bering, MAPDRW MAPINT-ni chaqiradi, MAPDRW-ga qo'ng'iroq qilishdan oldin MAPROJ, MAPSET va MAPPOS-ga qo'ng'iroq qilish kerak. Bundan tashqari, MAPDRW MAPINT, MAPGRD, MAPLBL va MAPLOT-ni chaqirganligi sababli, ushbu tartib-qoidalarga ta'sir qiladigan parametrlar MAPDRW-ga qo'ng'iroq qilishdan oldin o'rnatilishi kerak.

                              Ehtimol MAPDRW-dan deyarli har qanday oddiy xarita chizishida foydalanishingiz mumkin. Biroq, Ezmap bo'limida ko'rsatilgandek & quotMp 4. Niqoblangan yoki to'ldirilgan joylar bilan xaritalar yaratish & quot; MAPINT va MAPLOT-ga alohida-alohida qo'ng'iroq qilish imkoniyati mavjud.

                              Ikkinchi ustun maydon uchun maydon identifikatorini o'z ichiga oladi, shuning uchun xarita ma'lumotlar bazasidagi istalgan maydonga noyob tarzda murojaat qilishingiz mumkin. Uchinchi ustun maydon uchun tavsiya etilgan rang indeksini ko'rsatadi. Ushbu rang indekslari diqqat bilan tanlangan, shunda biron bir mamlakat yoki davlat biron bir qo'shni bilan bir xil rangga ega bo'lmaydi. Shuni ham unutmangki, okeanlar va ko'llar kabi barcha suv havzalarining rang ko'rsatkichi 1 ga teng. Bu sizning dasturingizda maskalash maqsadida okeanlarni tanlashni yoki okeanlar uchun mos rangni tanlashni osonlashtiradi.

                              Cmpmsk.f kod segmentining 8-qatorida MAPACI subroutine sifatida emas, balki funktsiya sifatida chaqirilishini unutmang. MAPACI okean yoki quruqlik massalarini aniqlash, ranglarni to'ldirish qiymatlarini o'rnatish va boshqa ko'plab maqsadlarda ishlatilishi mumkin bo'lgan butun sonni qaytaradi. Ushbu kod segmentining to'liq muhokamasi modulda paydo bo'ladi & quot; 4.6 Grid chiziqlari maskalanishi bilan: maskalash tartibini yozish. & Quot;

                                • 1 Ezmap geografik ma'lumot
                                • 2 Ezmap vertikal chiziqlar
                                • 3 konturli chiziqlar
                                • 4 vertikal chiziqlarni qadoqlash

                                Cmpgrp.f kod segmenti to'qqizta vertikal chiziq yordamida uchastkani yaratadi, bu yaratilgan maydonlarni kichikroq va sodda qilishiga ta'sir qiladi. 1-satr VS qiymatini berish orqali vertikal chiziqlar sonini o'rnatadi. 9 dan 2 gacha bo'lgan chiziqlar, so'ngra odatdagidek xaritani chizish.

                                MAPINT va ARINAM ilgari muhokama qilingan bo'lsa ham, ular konspektga kiritilgan, chunki ikkala tartib ham Ezmap-ni Maydonlar bilan ishlatish uchun juda muhimdir. Oldin ko'rsatilgandek, MAPINT xarita chegaralarini va proektsiyasini o'rnatadi, tekislikni ajratuvchi qatorlar to'plamini belgilaydi. ARINAM hudud xaritasi qatorini ishga tushiradi. MAPBLA MAPINT tomonidan belgilangan chiziqlarni oladi va ularni hudud xaritasiga qo'shadi, bunda geografik xaritaning konturlari uchun chekka guruh 1 sukut va vertikal chiziqlar to'plamini yaratish uchun chekka guruh 2 sukut bo'yicha foydalaniladi. Ezmap guruh identifikatorlari va vertikal chiziqlarni o'rnatish va ulardan foydalanish bo'yicha qo'shimcha ma'lumot uchun avvalgi modulga qarang.

                                Agar siz hudud xaritasini juda kichik qilib qo'ysangiz, xato xabari:

                                MAPBLA chaqirilganda paydo bo'ladi. Maydon xaritasiga qirralarni qo'shishdan oldin uning hajmini aniq belgilashning yaxshi usuli yo'q. LMAP = 50000 ni o'rnatishga harakat qiling va kerak bo'lganda oshiring. Ko'pgina kichik mintaqalar bo'lgan xaritalarda LMAP = 250000 kerakligi g'ayrioddiy emas.

                                  • 1. cmpmsk.f-ni o'zingizning katalogingizga nusxalash va uni cmapa.f deb nomlash. Parametrlarni (yorliq kattaligi, katakchaning parametrlari va boshqalarni) istalgan vaqtda o'zgartirishingiz uchun sozlang. Keyingi mashqlarda cmapa.f dan foydalanasiz.

                                  Agar LA o'chirilgan bo'lsa, MAPLBL hech qanday yorliq chizmaydi. Agar ko'rsatilgan bo'lsa, MAPLBL ham perimetrni chizadi. Perimetr parametri PE <> 0 sukut bo'yicha.

                                    • 1. Perimetri chizilmasligi uchun cmplbl misolini o'zgartiring.
                                    • 2. cmplbl misolidan foydalanib, yorliqlar hajmini standart qiymatga qo'ying, lekin LS = 1 ni o'rnatmang.
                                    • 3. O'zingizning cmapa.f versiyangizdan foydalanib, sevimli yorliq variantlarini o'rnating.

                                    ISIZ, guruh va maydon identifikatori massivlarining kattaligi (IAREA va IGRP), siz hudud xaritasiga qancha guruh chiziqlarini qo'shganingiz bilan belgilanadi. Birinchi guruh geografik anahat to'plami ekanligini unutmang. Other groups might include vertical stripping if you are using it, contour lines, or lines that you may want to add to the area map using the Ezmap line-drawing routines.

                                    Lines 6 and 7 label the globe and draw continental outlines.

                                    By using the color identifier to pick out land values, you could draw grid lines only over land. Similarly, by looking up the area identifiers for a given country in section "Mp 6. Table of Ezmap area identifiers," you could draw grid lines either only over a given country, or over everything except a given country.

                                      • 1. Using cmpmsk.f , modify MASK so that it draws grid lines only over land masses.
                                      • 2. Modify your own version of cmapa.f (from the Mp 4.3 exercises) so it draws only the grid lines that you want.

                                      Line 5 sets the GKS interior fill style to "solid" to produce solid fill. Line 6 calls the Areas scan area map routine with user-supplied fill routine so that each country is filled. Line 7 draws the grid lines over water, and line 8 draws the continental and political boundaries. The order of the overlaying done by these calls is critical to produce proper results. You must call detail-drawing routines after filling, since color-fill draws over anything that might have been there previously.

                                        • 1. Using your own version of cmapa.f (from the Mp 4.3 exercises), set it up to fill the regions of your choice. You may also want to choose a different color table for your routine.

                                        Lines 4 through 6 of the cmpfil.f code segment retrieve the area identifier for the geographic region by checking each element of the group array for group identifier 1, and assigning its associated area id to ID. Line 7 checks to see if the area is over the map, and if so, line 8 chooses a color index by retrieving the suggested Ezmap color using MAPACI. Line 9 fills the area.

                                          • 1. Use section "Mp 6. Table of Ezmap area identifiers" or the ngfile utility to determine the correct area identifier, then use the cmpfil example to change the color of Canada to be different than either the US or Russia.
                                          • 2. Using your own version of cmapa.f (from the Mp 4.3 exercises), modify it to do color fill.

                                          If the point is not projectable on the map, both routines return UVAL equal to 1.E12.

                                          Line 1 of the cmptra.f code segment draws the map as a reminder that the map projection and limits have been set up and that the map has been drawn. Line 3 calls MAPTRA to get the user coordinates of the point. If the coordinates are on the projection, then an asterisk is drawn over Boulder, Colorado, USA. MAPTRN or MAPTRA can be called any time after MAPINT is called.

                                            • 1. Using a full-globe mercator projection, draw a red circle over Lhasa, Tibet (29., 91.)
                                            • 2. Using the preceding exercise, write the city names over Beijing, China (39., 116.) and Machu Picchu, Peru (-13., -72.).

                                            Lines 1 through 13 of the mpex10.f code segment pick values to fill a cell array that will be used to color the globe. In line 2, CFUX takes an X coordinate in NDCs and returns an X coordinate in user coordinates. Similarly, CFUY in line 4 takes a Y coordinate of a point in NDCs and returns a Y value in user coordinates.

                                            Line 5 uses MAPTRI to retrieve the coordinates of the point in latitude and longitude. Since MAPTRI returns a value of RLAT=1.E12 if the point is not over a plotted portion of the globe, line 6 checks to see if the point maps onto the portion of the globe that will be plotted. If it does, then a value for the cell array is specified there. Otherwise, line 10 sets the cell array element to black. Line 14 fills the cell array, and line 15 draws the map over it.

                                            The Ezmap parameter DL determines whether MAPIT draws solid lines or dotted lines. Dotted lines are drawn using calls to POINTS. Solid lines are drawn using calls to DASHD, FRSTD, and VECTD. The parameters DD and MV also affect the behavior of MAPIT. For more information on these parameters, see the descriptions in module "Mp 3.5 Drawing political and geographic outlines."

                                            A sequence of calls to MAPIT should be followed by a call to MAPIQ to flush its buffers before a STOP, a CALL FRAME, or a call to change the color index. Points in two contiguous pen-down calls to MAPIT should not be far apart on the globe.

                                            It doesn't matter whether you call MAPIT and MAPIQ before or after calling the map-drawing routines. However, MAPIT and MAPIQ must be called after Ezmap is initialized. In line 1 of the cmptra.f code segment, the call to MAPDRW initializes Ezmap.

                                            Line 2 tells MAPIT to start drawing at the lower left corner of Colorado. Lines 3 through 6 draw the four sides of the state, and line 7 quits drawing.

                                            Another application of MAPIT appears in the next module.

                                              • 1. Given that Lhasa, Tibet is at (29., 91.), and Boulder, Colorado, USA is at (40., -105.15), draw a great circle between the two.

                                              Area identifiers used for an entire curve are not necessarily the ones used for each call to MAPITA or MAPIQA. Inside the two routines is a 100-point buffer. Whenever the buffer fills or MAPIQA is called, the buffer is dumped, and the current values of IDGRP, IDLEFT, and IDRIT are used. To set group and area identifiers, make sure to call MAPIQA after every call to MAPITA where you change group or area identifiers.

                                              Lines 14 through 20 add the longitude lines to the area map, giving each area identifiers of zero. The effect of these four loops is to give each 15-degree square on the map a single nonzero area identifier. When the area map is processed, each 15-degree square is then assigned its only nonzero area identifier. This is a shortcut that could possibly leave zeros as area identifiers for squares that run into the limb of a globe projection. Line 21 sets color fill to solid, and each square is filled by calling ARSCAM in line 22.

                                              Ideally, you would want to assign the same area identifier to all four lines that form each boxed area, and it may be necessary to do this with some projections. Line 22 calls ARSCAM to fill each square over land with a color based on a Z data value. The FILL routine is discussed on the next page.

                                              Lines 37 and 38 check our group identifiers and retrieve the area identifiers for areas defined by the geographic map and for areas defined by our two-degree grid over the globe. Line 40 checks to see if the area is over the geographic map. Line 41 checks to see if the area is over land (it has a color index not equal to 1), and if it has a nonzero grid area identifier. If the area is over land, then lines 42 and 44 retrieve the latitude and longitude values for the area, and lines 43 and 45 retrieve the Z array indices.

                                              Line 46 sets the color index to be the Z data value plus 1 (since the data ranges between 1 and 15 and we want to use colors 2 through 16 in our color table). You could just as easily use a different function to translate Z data values into color here. Lines 47 through 49 fill the region with the desired color.

                                              Notice how long this program takes to execute. It is much faster to create a cell array and use MAPTRA to overlay it on a globe. For an example of this, see module "Mp 5.2 Inverse transformations."

                                              The projection of the line segment joining two points on the globe is considered to be the straight-line segment joining the projections of the points. No attempt is made to project it as if it were a portion of a great circle, so it is a good idea to place points defining each segment closely together.

                                                • If both endpoints of a line segment are visible, the segment is considered to be entirely visible.
                                                • If both endpoints are invisible, the segment is considered to be entirely invisible.
                                                • If one endpoint is visible and the other is not, a new point is interpolated at the boundary between the visible and invisible portions.

                                                There are two types of boundaries between visible and invisible regions:

                                                  • The limb is a boundary between a projectable region and an unprojectable one. The limb may be circular, elliptical, or some other shape, depending on the projection being used. For example, an orthographic projection has as its limb a circle, centered at (0., 0.), with a radius of 1.
                                                  • The perimeter is a rectangular or elliptical boundary that is defined by the Ezmap parameters you set to specify the region you want to view.

                                                  Line 2 of the cmpitm.f code segment calls CMPMSK to draw a map with grid lines masked over land. This code has been slightly modified from the code used in cmpmsk.f . In cmpitm.f , lines 4 through 8 use a single area map both for the grid line masking and for masking the circle that is drawn by using MAPITM and MAPIQM.

                                                  Line 3 calls a routine that generates a circle on any part of the globe. Because the globe is not flat, CIRCLE generates a circle of radius RADIUS---3.5 in this case---and rotates that circle to (RLAT, RLON)---25N, 80W in this case. CIRCLE returns CLAT and CLON, two arrays that contain NPTS latitude and longitude coordinates for the desired circle.

                                                  In line 4, MAPITM calls MASK1 to determine whether or not to draw the first point in the circle. In lines 5 through 7, MAPITM again calls MASK1 to draw line segments connecting each succeeding point in the circle if those segments are not over land. Line 8 calls MAPIQM to finish the circle.

                                                  This table shows the association between area identifiers and the names of the areas they identify. The first column gives the outline dataset name, the second column shows an area identifier, the third column shows a suggested color index for the area (to ensure that adjacent areas have different colors), and the name of the area appears in the fourth column.

                                                  This table is sorted by area name to help you find the area identifiers you need. A copy of this table is also available online via the ncargfile command.


                                                  Thursday, December 22, 2005

                                                  "Rethinking maps" http://www.rgs.org/category.php?Page=ac2006 "Over the past 20 years there has been a sustained engagement in rethinking the ontological basis and epistemology of cartography. This has led to such conceptual frameworks as: maps as social constructions, post-representational cartography, non-confessional cartography, non-progressive histories of cartography, de-ontologized cartography, denaturalized cartography, critical cartography, counter-mappings and performative mapping." : http://www.rgs.org/ac2006 Cartographic 'remixability' (Manovich 2005).

                                                  Simple Analysis of Google Map and Satellite Tiles : http://dunck.us/collab/Simple_20Analysis_20of_20Google_20Map_20and_20Satellite_20Tiles
                                                  Outlook Map Display : http://office.weblogsinc.com/entry/1234000043072653/ This icon is a little yellow road sign with a black directional arrow on it, links directly to MSN maps and gives you a great map of almost any address entered into the address field.

                                                  "With both the web-based Maps and desktop-based Google Earth software available, armchair travel has gone mainstream, evidenced by the popularity of Google Sightseeing and similar sites." : http://www.venicewithoutamap.com/article/google_travel/#more-74

                                                  ChessMap : http://www.turbulence.org/spotlight/thinking/chess.html curves show potential moves--often several turns in the future the chess board will gently pulse to show the influence of the various pieces. Awesome learning tool.

                                                  'Road map' description "the possible roads, distances, conditions and connections between where you are and where you want to go." http://www.theinnovationroadmap.com/

                                                  Gamer Graphics : http://www.epilogue.net/cgi/database/art/editors.pl?sortorder=0 chosen by Epilogue Editors because of their outstanding quality and attention to detail.

                                                  Dada was an art movement that was ostrasized from the world of art as it swept through the world like war sweeping thoughout nations. Dadaism brought about everything new: new ideas, new materials, new directions, and new people. Dada had no uniform characteristics as many other movements in the arts have. Dadaist art can be interpreted by each person how they want to see or read it . Dadaism brings out feelings and emotions in each person dependent upon what he or she is going through at the time.
                                                  Art historians who are professionally trained to analyze the styles of art movements and periods have been continually baffled by the contradictions and complexities Dadaism poses towards itself. All those who attempt to analyze the Dadaist movement, to figure out it's breadth and depth all seem to come up short. The meaning and content go far beyond that which can be analyzed by a trained professional.
                                                  Dadaism is often mistaken as a myth due to the outrageous and ridiculous ideas put into the art, however it was very real. Dadaism was never expected to last forever, the Dadaists lived in the moment and for the moment, and so did the spirit of Dada . This beautiful form of art is no longer widely practised throughout the world, yet it is still greatly appreciated by many.


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                                                  This contractor hosted an online webinar session for approx. 40 members of the local CIOB branch. The session was arranged via the local CIOB representative to promote ongoing works on the Cairngorm Mountain Funicular Railway reinstatement. The session was hosted by the Senior Project Manager and Community Benefits Advisor. During the one-hour session, they discussed the methods of construction, programme…

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                                                  In order to ensure effective engagement with the workforce to improve their health, safety and wellbeing care and protection to the environment and exceed their stakeholders expectations, this contractor developed a TEMPO system and embedded the motto, ‘Keep to the TEMPO’, which is utilised in their Safe Systems of Work, Daily Activity Briefings, Temporary Works Management, HSEQ inspections, Environmental &…

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                                                  The project team at this contractor participated in raising awareness of Pride Month through flying the Rainbow Flag on site. Flying the flag showed the contractor are supportive and inclusive of those celebrating Pride Month.

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                                                  The project team has developed a new environmental initiative – ‘Mush to Bloom’ which is a much loved workshop by kids and encourages creativity and innovation whilst conserving the environment. This workshop makes use of post consumer paper which is broken down by placing it into a bowl of water and pulped into a ‘mush’ before being moulded into different…

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                                                  This contractor hosted an online hackathon session with 12 local university students currently studying Architectural Technology. The session was coordinated via the University lecturer and facilitated by the contractors Community Benefit Advisor, with further support and inputs from the Senior Project Manager, Digital Technician and Community Benefit Advisor. During the two-hour session, students discussed future opportunities to improve the visitor…

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                                                  This project has appointed three Fairness, Inclusion and Respect Ambassadors as they are committed to ensuring every person feels included and celebrated. They do this through their site inductions where they reinforce their commitment to inclusion and a no-tolerance approach to discrimination of any sort. They celebrate different cultures and beliefs through regular events and raise awareness of issues and…

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                                                  This contractor installed electric vehicle car charge points within the car park of their project. Eight electric car charging points have been installed within the temporary accommodation compound car park. With many people now having hybrid or fully electric cars and the focus on becoming more sustainable, the electric vehicle car charge points will be a great asset for their…

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                                                  As part of the community benefits offer for this project, the contractor have recently adopted a local academy and are supporting the school to complete the Class of Your Own Design Engineer Construct (DEC!) Programme Their Digital Technician hosted a webinar session with pupils to discuss his journey into the industry and the benefits of digital technology in construction. The…

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                                                  INTRODUCTION

                                                  Groundwater is one of the most precious resources on the planet (Jha et al. 2007). It can meet the needs of human survival and development, including for living and drinking, agricultural irrigation, industrial production, etc. (Peiyue et al. 2011). However, over the past three decades, due to the rapid development of agricultural modernization in China, the demand for groundwater has been increasing (Chen et al. 2018). As a result, a series of environmental geological problems have emerged, such as aquifer drying (Rizeei et al. 2019), land subsidence (Raeisi et al. 2018), seawater intrusion (Yang et al. 2019), soil secondary salinization (Qiu et al. 2017), nitrate pollution (Li et al. 2016) and wetland degradation (Zhu et al. 2015). Among these hazards, nitrate pollution has attracted much attention from the social and scientific communities, mainly because it adversely impacts human health. According to studies, NO3-N in water has a greater harmful effect on humans and aquatic organisms. Methaemoglobinemia occurs when water with a nitrate content greater than 10 mg/L is drunk for a period of time (Jones et al. 2019). If the methemoglobin content in the blood is 70 mg/L, choking can occur (De Roos et al. 2003). Nitrate intake from drinking water is a risk factor for colon or rectal cancer (DellaValle et al. 2014). The above studies are based on the dietary and drinking water intake of nitrate (Schullehner et al. 2018).

                                                  Health risk assessment of groundwater is essential. Common pollutants in groundwater include fluoride (F – ), nitrate (NO3 – -N), ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrite (NO2 – -N), and heavy metals (Ma et al. 2016 Zhang et al. 2018). Su et al. (2013) evaluated the health risks of nitrate nitrogen in groundwater in agricultural wastewater irrigation areas in northeast China, and the results of the study were that the health risks in urban areas were lower than that of agricultural irrigation areas. Health risk assessments successfully compared the risk between adults and children (Su et al. 2013). Zhai et al. (2017) evaluated the health risks of nitrate nitrogen in groundwater in the northeast Plain. The results of the study were that the NO3 concentration in the southeast and northeast of the study area was the highest (Zhai et al. 2017). Li et al. (2014) calculated the health risks of nitrate nitrogen in groundwater in the industrial park in northwest China, and the research results show that the annual health risk is higher than the highest acceptable level recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

                                                  The Songnen Plain is China's most important commodity grain production base. Hailun is an important part of the northeast of the Songnen Plain and plays an important role in agricultural production. Since 1995, cereal production, especially rice production, has increased significantly (Luo et al. 2018). At the same time, with the increase of rice yield, the area irrigated by groundwater rapidly increased. Because surface water is far from meeting the needs of human agricultural production, farmers have to extract groundwater from aquifers for dryland irrigation. However, the hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater and drinking water quality in agricultural irrigation areas (Hailun) are still not very clear. This may limit the protection and proper use of groundwater resources, especially drinking water safety issues for local residents.

                                                  The purpose of this research can be summarized as: (1) explore the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater (2) understand the evolution of groundwater and the sources of major ions through factor analysis and hydrochemical analysis (3) use the HHRA model to assess the health risks of groundwater as drinking water, with the parameters recommended in the USEPA (2004) guidelines. For the first time, the study population was divided into four categories: adult males, adult females, children and infants. The health risks of nitrate intake by different genders and age groups were studied. It is expected that the health risks of nitrate intake by different genders and ages can be obtained. The results of the study will help local governments strengthen management and governance in places where the groundwater environment is fragile, thereby effectively improving the quality of drinking water for local residents.


                                                  Space and Place Unit 8: Geographic Information System (GIS) & Multimedia Mapping

                                                  The use of multimedia maps – the combination of video and audio material with a georeferenced map – offers a particularly valuable possibility for visualizing the hidden structures of spatial knowledge and enables us to analyze the deep connection of this knowledge to the people’s perception of the environment.

                                                  Multimedia maps can directly link research results, images, and audio and video sources with specific locations. This information is made available with a simple mouse click. Users are offered a regional overview of the research area as well as specific research content, which is made available for this very purpose. The entire process of creating a multimedia map, from data collection to the creation of the map, should be guided by reciprocity. This means that at each step, several feedback sessions should be held to define and discuss necessary corrections of the map.

                                                  The use of a video camera and its subsequent image analysis provides a way to better understand the lives of the locals in retrospect and to make implicit patterns of interpretation

                                                  explicit. The aim of using multimedia maps should be to go “beyond observation cinema” (McDougall 1995) by encouraging local groups “to speak for themselves” (Banks 2001). This means that an interview (Figure 1) is initially recorded and edited on an audiotape or video.

                                                  With the help of a GIS program or an Internet map, the interview material is then georeferenced and linked with a map. What results is a multimedia map that allows local knowledge for certain regions to be retrieved interactively. For example, if an interview about the perception of the environment is filmed, this film is marked on the map and can be viewed directly.

                                                  The major weakness of this method is that the process of photo and video production and editing is very time-consuming and requires detailed technical skills. Moreover, deciding whether to use or not use a film and/or photo-camera as a tool for qualitative data collection is a very sensitive process, especially in intimate situations. When introducing the method, only after spending several weeks or months in the field is it possible to access people’s daily lives without bothering them by the presence of the camera.

                                                  Fig. 1. Recording an audio material for a multimedia map with a former carpenter: Safien valley- Switzerland/ Reichel (2012)

                                                  Multimedia mapping based on Internet Maps

                                                  In this Unit we will discuss available online mapping tools (e.g. Google Maps, Google Earth, Google SketchUp, Wikimapia, NASA World Wind etc.) and I will give you a brief demonstration of how these tools might be used. Multimedia maps are most easily applied using Web-based applications, which can be used to:

                                                  • draw geographic features directly on the map. This includes adding points, lines or polygons
                                                  • organize and display geotagged content, such as photos and videos. This may also include features that allow community members or other contributors to comment on, modify and share content.

                                                  When compared to traditional Web-based GIS, the Internet Mapping is making digital cartography more accessible and suitable for participatory mapping projects. This is because of four principal reasons:

                                                  • easy to use
                                                  • low cost
                                                  • ability to represent information in a multimedia format
                                                  • open access to base map data.

                                                  Multimedia mapping based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

                                                  Fig. 2. Discussing a Multimedia map: Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi – Indoensia/ Reichel (2005)

                                                  A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer-based suite of tools that captures, stores, analyses, manages and presents data that are linked to a specific location in the real world. A GIS package can work with maps, remote sensing, land surveying, aerial photography, databases and other tools.

                                                  GIS can be used to represent a variety of different features that occur on the Earth’s surface. This includes information related to the natural geography (e.g. forest cover or geology) or the relationship of people to the physical environment (e.g. the location of roads and infrastructure or the distribution of people through space). Most importantly, GIS presents information on features or events that occur at a specific location. This is referred to as “geospatial data” and can be defined as any information related to a location that can be expressed using geographic coordinates such as latitude and longitude.

                                                  Online Resources:

                                                  Google Earth Outreach:

                                                  is Google’s program for donating and supporting non-profit organizations spreading the knowledge of global awareness since 2007.[1] Google Earth Outreach offers online training on using Google Earth and Google Maps for public education on issues affecting local regions or the entire globe. http://www.google.com/earth/outreach/index.html (Links to an external site.)

                                                  NASA World Wind:

                                                  Similar to Google Earth, NASA World Wind is a viewer that can be used to zoom in to various features of Earth’s surface. In addition to being able to view Earth’s surface, users can also view the moon, Venus, Mars, Neptune and the stars and galaxies of the night sky. NASA World Wind is open-source software. Data that are available in NASA World Wind can be extracted and used in other mapping applications. http://worldwind.arc.nasa.gov/ (Links to an external site.)

                                                  Map-it:

                                                  MAP-it is a tool for participatory cartography and conversation. It’s a low-tech mapping tool that allows you to debrief past projects, manage current ones and plan future activities. It ́s a hands-on tool, an open and extendible set of icons that allows participants to make their thoughts explicit in a visual way, in the form of a map. The visual character of mapping allows participants from different backgrounds to discuss projects on equal grounds. Moreover, the mapping ́s structure encourages to not only share positive experiences, but also leads to critique and debate. Communication is opened up and details come to surface using the various MAP-it elements. http://www.map-it.be (Links to an external site.)

                                                  MapBox:

                                                  MapBox is an open platform for developers and designers at enterprise scale. https://www.mapbox.com (Links to an external site.)
                                                  Open Source GIS: Open source GIS refers to an approach to the design, development, and distribution of the software, by offering users the ability to directly access and modify the software’s source code. GIS has a large number of open source products ranging from full featured and complete GIS packages to small programs which have a small range of specific tasks. Links to some of the better known and complete GIS packages are included below. QGIS: http://qgis.org/ (Links to an external site.)

                                                  Open forum on participatory geographic information systems and technologies:

                                                  PPgis.Net serves as a global avenue for discussing issues and sharing experiences and good practices related to participatory GIS (PGIS) practice and a range of geographic information technologies which are used to support integrated conservation and development, sustainable natural resource management and customary property rights in developing countries and among indigenous people worldwide. http://www.ppgis.net (Links to an external site.)

                                                  Information is beautiful:

                                                  David McCandless a London-based author, writer and designer is interested how designed information can help us understand the world, cut through BS and reveal the hidden connections, patterns and stories underneath. Or, failing that, it can just look cool! http://www.informationisbeautiful.net (Links to an external site.)

                                                  Infovis:

                                                  Arno Klein is building this searchable database of information graphics from visitor submissions and numerous repositories on the internet. He initially built the site as a purely academic endeavor (all sources are cited) as part of a research program to classify these and other information graphics according to a taxonomy he is developing. http://www.infovis.info/search.php (Links to an external site.)

                                                  Wikimapia:

                                                  Wikimapia is an online map that users are able to edit. Wikimapia allows users to contribute textual information, including links to other websites, to geographic locations which are broken down into a series of boxes. Users are responsible for creating the boxes that represent various places. Presently, Wikimapia stores and displays information associated with locations all around the world. http://wikimapia.org/ (Links to an external site.)

                                                  Jerry’s Map:

                                                  In the summer of 1963 Jerry Kretzinger began drawing a map of an imaginary city. It now comprises almost 3100 individual eight by ten inch panels. Its execution, in acrylic, marker, colored pencil, ink, collage, and inkjet print on heavy paper, is dictated by the interplay between an elaborate set of rules and randomly generated instructions. http://www.jerrysmap.com/

                                                  Required Readings:

                                                  • Gibson, Chris Brennan-Horley, Chris Warren, Andrew. 2010. “Geographic Information Technologies for cultural research: cultural mapping and the prospects of colliding epistemologies.InCultural Trends 19:325–348. Routledge. [PDF Link ]
                                                  • Speed, Chris. 2012.” Walking through time: Use Locative Media to Explore Historical Maps.InMapping Cultures, Place Practice, Performance. Palgrave. [PDF Link ]

                                                  Videoni tomosha qiling: У Семенівській громаді понизили у ступені три школи тепер там вчитимуться тільки молодші класи