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12: Suv oqimi va shamol tomonidan yaratilgan to'shak konfiguratsiyasi - Geosciences

12: Suv oqimi va shamol tomonidan yaratilgan to'shak konfiguratsiyasi - Geosciences


12: Suv oqimi va shamol tomonidan yaratilgan yotoq konfiguratsiyalari

Qurolli bosqinchi

18 ta zaharli tikan bilan, invaziv sher baliqlari dengiz ekotizimiga zarar etkazadi - Atlantikada, Karib dengizida va hozir O'rta er dengizida. Uning og'riqli chaqishi o'lik emas, lekin potentsial yirtqichlarni qo'rqitish uchun etarli. Florida, Kuba, Kolumbiya va Bagama orollari kabi joylarda hukumatlar odamlarni baliqni o'ldirishga yoki eyishga undagan.

To'lqinlar ostida tahdid: dengizning invaziv turlari


Birinchidan, qanday qilib uyimni energiya tejamkor qilishim mumkin?

Uyingiz uchun shamol tizimini tanlashdan oldin, siz o'zingizning uyingiz yoki biznesingizni yanada tejamkor qilib, energiya sarfini kamaytirishni o'ylab ko'rishingiz kerak. Siz AQSh uylarida elektr energiyasi qanday ishlatilishini bilib olishingiz mumkin. Energiya sarfini kamaytirish sizning kommunal to'lovlaringizni sezilarli darajada kamaytiradi va sizga kerak bo'lgan uy sharoitida qayta tiklanadigan energiya tizimini kamaytiradi. Maksimal energiya tejamkorligiga erishish uchun siz butun qurilish usulini qo'llashingiz kerak. O'z uyingizni o'zaro bog'liq qismlarga ega energiya tizimi sifatida ko'ring, ularning barchasi tizim samaradorligiga hissa qo'shish uchun sinergik tarzda ishlaydi. Uyingizning devorlarini izolyatsiyalashdan tortib uning lampalarigacha, uyingizni yanada samarali qilishning ko'plab usullari mavjud.

  • Uydagi havo oqishini izolyatsiya qilish va muhrlab qo'yish-bu energiya sarfini kamaytirishning eng tezkor va iqtisodiy usullaridan biridir. 1950 yilgacha qurilgan uylar 2000 yoki undan keyin qurilgan uylarga qaraganda har kvadrat futga taxminan 60% ko'proq energiya sarflaydi.
  • Termostatni normal holatidan kuniga 8 soat davomida 7 ° dan 10 ° F gacha pastga aylantirish, isitish va sovutish uchun 10% tejash imkonini beradi.
  • Low-e tashqi yoki ichki bo'ronli derazalar, uyda o'rnatilgan oyna turiga qarab, isitish va sovutish xarajatlarini 12% dan 33% gacha tejash imkonini beradi. [5]
  • Uyingizda eng ko'p ishlatiladigan beshta lampochka yoki lampochkani ENERGY STAR qozongan modellarga almashtirish orqali siz har yili 75 dollar tejashingiz mumkin.
  • Maishiy texnika sotib olayotganda Energy Star® yorlig'iga e'tibor bering. Energy Star® asboblari AQSh Atrof-muhitni muhofaza qilish agentligi va AQSh Energetika vazirligi tomonidan o'z sinflarida eng tejamkor mahsulotlar deb topildi. [6]

Uy energiyasini qanday tejash haqida ko'proq ma'lumot olish uchun "Energiyani tejash: uyda pul va energiyani tejash bo'yicha maslahatlar" bo'limiga qarang.


DIY: Hovli oqimidan foydalanib, elektr energiyasini ishlab chiqaring

Uyingizning orqa tarafidagi oqim yordamida o'zingizni suv bilan ishlaydigan elektr stantsiyasiga aylantirishning sodda va ayni paytda rag'batlantiruvchi usuli. Bu g'oya Off-Grid.net maqolasidan olingan. Aslida, bu g'oya umuman yangilik emas: hatto rimliklar ham bundan ming yillar oldin mexanik tizimlarini quvvatlantirish uchun ishlatganlar, garchi ular mexanik bo'lsa -da, umuman ibtidoiy emas va o'sha paytlarda juda yaxshi qulaylik darajasini ta'minlagan.

Asosiy g'oya oddiy: o'zingizga daryo toping, uning turbinani aylantirish uchun kerakli tezlik va tezlikka ega bo'ladigan darajada keskin tushib ketishiga ishonch hosil qiling va kerakli quvurlar va oqimlarni boshqarish tizimini yarating.

Tog'li va tepalikli joylar bu turdagi qayta tiklanadigan energiyaga eng mos keladi. Siz hisobga olishingiz kerak bo'lgan birinchi parametr - bu sizning suvingiz tushadigan joydan balandligi. Agar u 3 m dan yuqori bo'lsa, sizda yuqori boshli mikro gidroturbin. Agar u 0.6 va#8211 3 metr oralig'ida bo'lsa past boshli gidroturbin. Birinchisiga ustunlik berish kerak, chunki kerakli oqim kuchi ancha kamayadi. Yuqori boshli gidroturbinlar tortishish kuchi bilan hajm etishmasligini qoplaydi.

Siz quvurlar hajmini va shu oqimdan sizga keladigan suv oqimini o'lchashingiz kerak. Buni amalga oshirishning bir qancha usullari bor va men bu erda Off-Grid.net saytidan iqtibos keltiraman, chunki ularning tushuntirishlari eng yaxshisidir (men yaxshiroq variantni topa olmadim):

“ 1. chelak usuli bu sizning oqimingizni chelakka yoki idishga yo'naltirish uchun to'siq qo'yishni o'z ichiga oladi. Konteynerni to'ldirish tezligi - bu oqim tezligi. Agar siz 5 gallon chelakdan foydalansangiz va u bir daqiqada to'ldirilgan bo'lsa, sizning oqim tezligingiz bir daqiqada 5 galon bo'ladi.

2. Suv tez oqmasa va/yoki sizning buzoqlaringiz ustida ishlamasa vaznli suzish usuli. Bu suv yo'lining chuqurligini kengligi bo'ylab o'lchashni o'z ichiga oladi. Buning uchun sizga quyidagilar kerak bo'ladi: yordamchi, lenta o'lchovi, o'lchov o'lchagichi, o'lchovli suzuvchi (suvning yarmi to'ldirilgan plastik shisha), sekundomer va grafik qog'oz. Keyin suv yo'lining kesishuvini eng past suv sathida hisoblash uchun sizga kerak:

  1. Suv yo'lining eng tekis chuqurligini va to'g'ri chizig'ini toping
  2. Suv yo'lining kengligini eng tor nuqtada o'lchang
  3. Chuqurlikni 1 futlik qadam bilan o'lchash uchun vertikal ko'rsatkichni ishlating. O'tishlarni belgilash uchun siz chiziq bo'ylab ishlatishingiz mumkin.
  4. Suv yo'lining kesma diagrammasini berish uchun o'lchovlarni qog'ozga chizib qo'ying
  5. Har bir kesimdagi to'rtburchaklar (maydon = uzunlik à ¢ €⠀ kengligi) va to'g'ri uchburchaklar (maydon = ½ tayanch ià ‚€⠀ balandligi) maydonlarini aniqlab, har bir bo'limning maydonini hisoblang.
  6. Siz o'lchagan qismdan yuqoridan kamida 20 fut balandlikdagi nuqtani belgilang
  7. U erdan sizning o'lchovli suzuvchi va suv yo'lining o'lchangan qismiga etib borish uchun qancha vaqt ketishini bo'shating. Ehtiyot bo'ling, og'irlikdagi suzuvchi hech qachon oqim oqimiga tortilmasin.
  8. Oqim tezligini olish uchun ikki nuqta orasidagi masofani suzish uchun zarur bo'lgan soniyalarga bo'ling. Buni bir necha marta bajarish va o'rtacha qiymatdan foydalanish sizga yaxshiroq o'lchov beradi
  9. O'rtacha tezlikni oqimning kesma maydoniga ko'paytiring
  10. Nihoyat, siz suv yo'lining yotog'ining pürüzlülüğünü hisobga olishingiz kerak. Natijalarni 0,6 ga ko'paytirish kerak bo'ladi, pastki qismidagi ko'plab qo'pol toshlar uchun 0,7, pastki qismidagi mayda va o'rta toshlar uchun 0,7 yoki tekis qumli taglik uchun 0,8.

Oqim va bosh hisob -kitoblarini amalga oshirgandan so'ng, samaradorligi taxminan 53% bo'lgan standart mikrogidroenergetika tizimi uchun elektr quvvati uzilishini taxmin qilish mumkin. Buning uchun siz to'r boshini oqimga ko'paytirasiz, keyin 10 ga bo'linib, vatt quvvatiga ega bo'lasiz.

aniq bosh [(oyoq) ià ¢ €⠀ oqimi (gpm)] i · 10 = V ”

Shunday qilib, bu erda! Sizning daryo va#8217s oqimidan elektr energiyasi ishlab chiqarish tizimi! Bu atrof -muhitga deyarli ta'sir qilmaydi va u sizni tarmoqdan qisman yoki to'liq ozod qilishi mumkin (sizning ehtiyojlaringiz va suv tezligiga qarab).


Vint konfiguratsiyasining egizak vintli granulyatsiya natijasida hosil bo'lgan granulalarning zarracha kattaligiga ta'siri

Ikki vintli granulyatsiya (TSG) har xil tadqiqot guruhlari tomonidan doimiy ho'l granulyatsiya uchun jozibali texnologiya sifatida qayd etilgan. Shu bilan birga, suyultirilgan yotoq granulyatsiyasidan farqli o'laroq, bu usulda ishlab chiqarilgan granulalar, odatda, zarracha o'lchamining keng va multimodal taqsimlanishiga ega, natijada suboptimal oqim xossalari paydo bo'ladi. Hozirgi tadqiqotning maqsadi granulyator vint konfiguratsiyasining TSG tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan granulalarning PSD ga ta'sirini baholash edi. Tajribalar ConsiGma ™ -25 tizimining (GEA Pharma Systems kompaniyasining kukundan planshetgacha bo'lgan doimiy uzluksiz ishlab chiqarish liniyasi) bir qismi bo'lgan 25 mm dumaloq ikkita vintli granulyator yordamida amalga oshirildi. TSG uchun an'anaviy ravishda ishlatiladigan vintli elementlardan tashqari, granulyatlangan a-laktoza monohidratli formulalar yordamida vintli elementlarning muqobil konstruktsiyalari (tish aralashtiruvchi elementlar (TME), vintli aralashtirish elementlari (SME) va kesgichlar) o'rganildi. distillangan suv. Faqat tashuvchi elementlar bilan granulyatsiya natijasida PSD keng va multimodal shakllandi. Yoğurma elementlari yordamida PSD kengligi qisman qisqarishi mumkin va suyuqlik taqsimoti bir hil bo'lgan. Ammo, shunga qaramay, katta hajmli aglomeratlarning katta qismi qo'lga kiritildi. Vida konfiguratsiyasining oxirgi qismida qo'shimcha yoğurma elementlari yoki to'sarlarni amalga oshirish foydali bo'lmadi. Bundan tashqari, faqat TME yoki KO'K bilan granulyatsiya PSD kengligiga cheklangan ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Yoğurma elementlarini KO'K bilan birlashtirish orqali umidli natijalarga erishildi, chunki bu konfiguratsiyalar uchun PSD torroq bo'lib, planshetlash uchun mos bo'lgan fraktsiyalarga o'tkazildi.

Kalit so'zlar: Doimiy ishlov berish Zarrachalar hajmini taqsimlash Jarayonni tushunish Vida konfiguratsiyasi Ikki vintli granulyatsiya.


Turbulentlikning suv oqimidagi qattiq disklar va turbina simulyatorlarining tortilishiga ta'siri

Turbulentlikning qattiq disklar va gözenekli disk turbinasi simulyatorlarining harakatlanishiga ta'sirini o'rganish uchun laboratoriya tajribalari ishlatilgan. Bu disklar turbulent oqimlarga, tortishish kuchi bilan to'lgan suv oqimida, turbulentlik intensivligi va ajralmas uzunlik shkalalari har xil darajada bo'lgan. Turbulentlik uch xil tarmoq konfiguratsiyasi yordamida vujudga keldi, ular oldingi tunnel tadqiqotlari bilan taqqoslanadigan intensivlik va shkalalarni ishlab chiqardi. Drayv o'lchovlari ikki xil diametrli va g'ovakli disklar bilan va yuqoridagi tarmoqlarsiz va ularsiz olingan. Tajriba natijalari shuni ko'rsatdiki, sinab ko'rilgan barcha disklarning tortishish koeffitsientlari turbulentlik intensivligiga ham, integral uzunlik shkalasiga ham bog'liq. Diskka nisbatan kichik uzunlikdagi shkalalar uchun tortishish koeffitsientlari turbulentlik intensivligi 13 % dan oshadi va past zichlikdagi tortishish koeffitsienti 20 % ga oshadi. Turbulentlik intensivligi 10 % bo'lgan eksperimentlar diskning diametri 50 sm atrofida bo'lganda, minimal tortish koeffitsientlarini ko'rsatdi. Har xil xarakteristikaga ega bo'lgan turbulent oqimlarda ishlayotganda, dumaloq portlash jismlarining tortish koeffitsientining sezilarli o'zgarishi kutilmoqda.

Bu obuna tarkibini oldindan ko'rish, sizning muassasangiz orqali kirish.


Yog'ochdan yasalgan fextavonie yig'ilishlarining olovi shamolga chidamli o't o'chiruvchi yomg'ir ostida

Koloradodagi Waldo Canyon Fire (2012) da NIST tomonidan o'tkazilgan yong'indan keyingi tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatdiki, yog'ochdan yasalgan panjara majmualari Wildland-Urban Interface yong'inlarida o't o'chiruvchi yomg'irdan yonib ketishga moyil, deb ishonishgan, lekin buni hech qachon eksperimental tekshirish bo'lmagan. ateşleme mexanizmi. Natijada, shamol bilan boshqariladigan o't o'chiruvchi yomg'irlar ta'sirida yog'ochdan yasalgan panjara yig'ilishlarining alangalanishini tekshirish uchun bir qator tajribalar o'tkazildi. G'arbiy Qizil Sidr va Redvud qilichbozlik majmualari Yaponiyaning Qurilish tadqiqotlari institutining Yong'inni tadqiq qilish shamol tunneli zavodida o'rnatilgan NIST to'liq o'lchovli uzluksiz o't o'chiruvchi generatori tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan doimiy shamol ta'sirli o't o'chiruvchilarga duch keldi. Qilichbozlik majmualari yonida bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan nozik yoqilg'ilarni simulyatsiya qilish uchun quritilgan yog'ochdan yasalgan maydalangan to'shak to'siqlar yoniga o'rnatildi. Qilichbozlik majmualari uzunligi va yo'nalish bo'yicha turli xil bo'lib, real vaziyatlarda duch kelishi mumkin bo'lgan konfiguratsiyalarni taqlid qildi. Bu tajribalarda fextavonie yig'ilishlarining ham tekis, ham burchak qismlari ishlatilgan. Yog'ochdan yasalgan to'siqlarni yig'ish qismlarining o'lchamlari kengligi 0,91 m, balandligi 1,83 m, kengligi 1,83 m, balandligi 1,83 m. Burchak qismlarga nisbatan, o'lchamlar 0,91 m dan 0,91 m gacha 1,83 m balandlikda ishlatilgan. Ko'rib chiqilgan barcha konfiguratsiyalar natijasida zambil to'shaklari olovli olovga (FI) va keyinchalik yog'ochdan yasalgan panjara yig'ilishlarining FI ga olib keldi. Nihoyat, shamol bilan boshqariladigan o't o'chiruvchi yomg'irlar, panjara uchastkalari yonida nozik yoqilg'isiz, fextavonie yig'indilarini ishlab chiqarishi mumkinligini aniqlash uchun ham tajribalar yakunlandi. Yong'in o'chirgichlari mayda yonilg'i bo'lmagan holda qilichbozlik yig'ilishining yonib ketadigan olovini (SI) ishlab chiqardi va SI qo'llaniladigan shamol maydoni ostida FIga o'tdi. Bu tajribalar shuni ko'rsatdiki, yog'ochdan yasalgan panjara majmualari shamol bilan boshqariladigan o't o'chiruvchi yomg'ir yonishidan himoyasizdir.

Bu obuna tarkibini oldindan ko'rish, sizning muassasangiz orqali kirish.


Kran.jpg

1994 yilda Arizona shtati Xalqaro Santexnika Standartini qabul qildi, unga ko'ra suvni kam ishlatadigan sanitariya-tesisat armaturalari yangi qurilishda va armatura almashtirilishi kerak. Arizona yagona suv ta'minoti kodeksi bosim talablarini va sanitariya -tesisat qurilmalarida ishlatiladigan suvning maksimal oqim tezligi va chegaralarini belgilaydi. Amaldagi qonun yangi qurilishda va mavjud qurilishda armatura almashtirilganda, har gal 0,6 galon hojatxona, 1,0 galon siydik chiqarish va 2,5 galon kran va dush boshini o'rnatishni talab qiladi. Suvni kam sarflaydigan turli hojatxonalar, dush boshlari, kranli shamollatgichlar va boshqa suvni tejaydigan qurilmalar almashtirish yoki yangi qurilish uchun mavjud, ulardan ba'zilari quyida tasvirlangan.

EPA ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, har bir xonadon oqish natijasida har yili 10 000 gallondan ortiq suv yo'qotadi, bu 280 yukni yuvish, 600 marta dush qabul qilish yoki bir oy davomida o'rtacha oilaning suvga bo'lgan ehtiyojini qondirish uchun zarur bo'lgan suvdir. Ba'zi suv oqishlarini sekin va aniqlash qiyin, lekin hatto eng kichik oqishlar ham tezda qo'shilishi mumkin. Smart Home Water Guide sizga byudjetingizni to'kayotgan oqishlarni topishga va tuzatishga yordam beradi.

Hojatxonalar

EPA ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, faqat hojatxonalar maishiy suvning 27 foizini ishlatishi mumkin. 1980 yilgacha bo'lgan hojatxonalarda suv iste'moli odatda har bir yuvishda 4 galondan oshgan, 1990 yilgacha bo'lgan hojatxonalarda esa har gal har gal 3,5 galondan oshgan. Tualetning ishlab chiqarilgan sanasi odatda tank qopqog'ining pastki qismida yoki tankning o'zida bo'lishi mumkin. Amaldagi Arizona yagona suv ta'minoti kodeksi (45 -sarlavha, 12 -modda), hojatxonalarda har bir yuvish uchun maksimal 1,6 galon ishlatilishini talab qiladi. Yangi, yuqori samarali hojatxonalarni (HET) o'rnatish orqali bu miqdorni ancha kamaytirish mumkin. Yangi yoki eski modellar bo'lsin, oqish paydo bo'lishi bilan uni tuzatish juda muhim, chunki sızıntılı hojatxonalar kuniga 200 gallongacha suvni isrof qilishi mumkin.

Oqayotgan hojatxonalar kuniga 200 gallon suv yo'qotishi mumkin, shuning uchun sizib ketgan joylarni tekshirish juda muhimdir. Ehtiyot bo'ling va quloq soling, shunda siz tankdan idishga o'tayotgan suvni eshitishingiz mumkin. Sızıntıyı aniqlashning oson yo'li, agar bo'yoq hojatxonaning idishida paydo bo'lsa, vana oqishi mumkin yoki flapper tankga to'g'ri joylashmagan bo'lsa, tankga bir necha tomchi suyuq oziq -ovqat bo'yoqini tushirishdir.

Arizona shtati standartiga 1,6 galon yoki undan kam bo'lgan hojatxonalarga ba'zan ultra past oqimli (ULF) hojatxonalar deyiladi. Yuqori mahsuldorlikdagi hojatxonalar (HET) undan oshib ketadi standart va faqat 1,28 gpf dan foydalaning, 20% tejash. Yuqori samarali hojatxona yiliga 4000 galon suvni tejash imkonini beradi.

EPA Water Sense Tank tipidagi yuqori samarali hojatxona spetsifikatsiyasi bir va ikki marta yuviladigan suvni tejaydigan hojatxonalar mezonlarini umumlashtiradi. Hujjat shuningdek, to'ldirish valfining yaxlitligi, tankni sozlash va armatura ishlashini tekshirish protokollarini o'z ichiga oladi.

Ikki marta yuviladigan hojatxonada yuvishning ikkita varianti bor: biri suyuq chiqindilar uchun 0,8 dan 1,2 gallongacha va qattiq chiqindilar uchun 1,6 galondan foydalaniladi. Bu "yarim yuvish" va "to'liq yuvish" texnologiyasi suv sarfini 67 foizgacha kamaytirishi mumkin.

Bu hojatxonalarda yuvishni faollashtirish uchun infraqizil nurlaridan foydalanadigan sensor mavjud.

Tarkibni yuvish uchun suv idishi va tortish kuchiga tayanadigan hojatxonalardan farqli o'laroq, tanksiz hojatxonalar har bir yuvishda kamroq suv sarflaydi. Ular flushometrdan foydalanadilar, bu - hojatxonaga o'lchangan miqdordagi suvni qo'yib yuboradi, keyin esa yopiladi. Flushometrli hojatxonalar ko'pincha umumiy hojatxonalarda va ish joylarida ko'rinadi.

Yuqori samaradorlikdagi siydik chiqargichlar Arizona kodeksining standartiga mos keladi, har bir yuvishda 1 gallon suvdan kam. Ba'zida "yuviladigan siydik chiqarish joylari" deb ataladigan juda kam miqdordagi siydik chiqarishda har bir yuvishda 0,5 dan 1 gallongacha suv ishlatiladi. Tovar yoki modelga qarab, yuvish mexanizmi armatura tepasida, armatura ustidagi devorda yoki avtomatik bo'lishi mumkin.

Bu siydik chiqargichlarda yuvishni faollashtirish uchun infraqizil nurlar nuridan foydalanadigan sensor mavjud. Datchiklar siydik ishlatilgan vaqtni (yoki kimdir uning oldida turganini va uzoqlashganini) aniqlaydi, bu esa yuvishni faollashtiradi. Boshqaruv elementlari o'tayotganlarning faollashuvini oldini olish va keyingi odamni joylashtirish uchun ishlatilgandan so'ng uni qayta o'rnatish uchun mo'ljallangan. Foydalanuvchining nogironlarga yordam beradigan va kasallik tarqalishining oldini olishga yordam beradigan faollashtiruvchi qurilma bilan bog'lanishiga hojat yo'q. Qayta jihozlash to'plamlari uyda foydalanish uchun mavjud.

Suvsiz peshoblar yuvish uchun suv ishlatmaydi, garchi tozalash uchun oz miqdorda kerak bo'lsa. Suvsiz siydik yiliga 45000 galongacha suvni tejaydi. Suvsiz siydik chiqargichlar odatda katta maydonlarda, ofis binolari va aeroportlarda uchraydi. U burilishida hid paydo bo'lishining oldini olish uchun kartridj va suyuq plomba ishlatiladi. Ultriumni oz miqdorda suv bilan tozalash va vaqti -vaqti bilan almashtirish kerak.

FAUCETS & amp SHOWERHEADS

EPA ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, kranlar va dush boshlari uy suvining 33 foizini ishlatishi mumkin. Suvni tejaydigan modellarni o'rnatish orqali bu miqdorni ancha kamaytirish mumkin. Arizona shtat birligi sanitariya -tesisat kodeksi musluklar va dush boshlari oqimining tezligi daqiqasiga 2,5 galondan oshmasligini talab qiladi. 1990 yildan eski binolarda suvni tejaydigan sanitariya-tesisat qurilmalari bo'lmasligi mumkin va oqim tezligi daqiqasiga 5 galondan oshishi mumkin. Quyida mavjud bo'lgan ba'zi yangi kranlarning tavsifi va musluk suvidan foydalanishni kamaytirishga yordam beradigan qurilmalar keltirilgan.

Kam oqimli shamollatgichlar suv sarfini kamaytirishda juda samarali. Aeratorlar oqim tezligini 2,5 gpm yoki undan pastgacha kamaytirish uchun eski, katta hajmli kranlarga biriktirilishi mumkin. Aeratorlar oqim oqimiga havo qo'shib, suv bosimini ushlab turganda, purkagichga o'xshash oqim hosil qiladi. Ba'zi havalandırıcılar, kranlarni almashtirish xarajatlarining bir qismini, suv oqimini .5 gpm yoki undan pastgacha kamaytirishi mumkin. Aeratorning nominal oqimi uning yon tomoniga bosilgan.

Avtomatik kranlar kran ishlatilmaganda suv oqishiga to'sqinlik qiladi. Bu kranlarda kran oqimini boshqarish uchun infraqizil nurlaridan foydalanadigan sensor mavjud. Qo'l to'g'ridan -to'g'ri armatura ostiga qo'yilganda oqim boshlanadi va qo'llar chiqarilganda to'xtaydi. Avtomatik kranlar qo'lda ishlaydigan musluklar ishlatadigan suvning 10-50 foizini tejaydi. Bu kranlar tugmachalarni ushlash yoki aylantirishda qiynaladigan odamlarga yordam beradi.

Hisoblangan (yoki o'z-o'zidan yopiladigan) kranlar ma'lum vaqt davomida o'lchangan miqdordagi suvni etkazib beradi, shuning uchun oldindan belgilangan chegaralar bajarilgandan so'ng, kran avtomatik ravishda o'chadi. Bu keraksiz oqimdan yo'qolgan suvni yo'q qiladi.

Oddiy dush boshlarining oqim tezligi 2,5 g / s bo'lsa -da, siz oqim tezligi 1,2 g / s gacha bo'lgan dush boshlarini topishingiz mumkin. Bu past oqimli dush boshlari suv oqimiga havo pufakchalarini quyish orqali ishlaydi, natijada suv bosimi saqlanib qoladi.

Dushbo'ronning bu turi suv ma'lum bir haroratga yetganda suv oqimini kamaytiradi va shu bilan dush kirguncha issiq suvni tejaydi. Dush boshida foydalanuvchi tayyor bo'lgach, iliq suvni to'kish uchun tutqich yoki tortish dastagi mavjud. Bu qurilma suvni ham, suvni isitish uchun sarflanadigan energiyani ham tejaydi.

Dush boshida tutqich bor, u suvning oqishini sekinlashtiradi, foydalanuvchi sovun olganda, sochini yoki shampunini yuvadi. Oqim qayta tiklanganda, suv vaqtincha o'chirishdan oldingi harorat bilan bir xil bo'ladi.

Suvni isitish va davolash

Suvni isitish

An'anaviy issiq suv tizimida suv isitgichi suvni isitadi, keyin u suv isitgichidan uy yoki inshootdagi har bir kran yoki dush boshiga oqadi. Har bir dasturdan keyin suv sovigan quvurlarda qoladi. Keyingi safar issiq suv kerak bo'lganda, quvurlardagi salqin suvni issiq suv paydo bo'lguncha ishlatishga ruxsat beriladi va yiliga 8-20 ming galon isrof qilinadi. Talab bo'yicha (yoki bir zumda) issiq suv bilan ta'minlaydigan tizimlar quyida tasvirlangan.

Bu tizimlarda issiq suv quvuridagi suv kran va suv isitgichi o'rtasida aylanib yuradi, shunda suv issiq qoladi. Bu isitish suvini kutayotganda drenajdan suv oqishiga yo'l qo'ymaydi. Tizim suv isitgichidan eng olis armaturagacha va orqaga suv isitgichigacha cho'zilgan issiq suv liniyasidan, suvni aylantiruvchi nasosdan, termostatni, izolyatsiya valfidan va nazorat valfidan iborat. Tizimlar ma'lum bir vaqt uchun o'rnatilishi mumkin bo'lgan taymerni yoki suv aylanishini boshlash uchun kalitni o'z ichiga olishi mumkin. Suvni sezilarli darajada tejashga erishish mumkin, ayniqsa, issiq suv eng uzoq masofadagi armaturaga juda katta masofani bosib o'tishi kerak bo'lganda. Ishlab chiqaruvchilarning hisob -kitoblariga ko'ra, odamlar har yili o'rtacha 11000 dan 15000 galongacha suvni isrof qiladi, chunki odamlar issiq suvni kutishadi. Ba'zida yangi qurilishda aylanma tizimlar talab qilinadi. Mavjud uylar va binolarni qayta jihozlash uchun chegirmalar va chegirmalar bo'lishi mumkin.

"Foydalanish nuqtasi" suv isitgichi to'g'ridan -to'g'ri lavabonun ostiga yoki har doim issiq suv kerak bo'lganda o'rnatiladi va darhol issiq suv ishlab chiqaradi.

Tanksiz suv isitgichi foydalanish joyida joylashgan bo'lishi mumkin va cheksiz, bir lahzali issiq suv bilan ta'minlaydi. Uning saqlash idishi yo'q va gazli modellarda tez -tez uchuvchi chiroqlar yo'q, shu bilan energiya tejanadi.

Suvni davolash

Suv yumshatgichlari suvdan kaltsiy va magniy kabi "qattiq" minerallarni olib tashlaydi, bu esa vannalar va lavabolardagi sovun, xira ko'rinadigan kirlar, dog'li idishlar va armatura, suv isitgichlari va trubalardagi cho'kmalarga olib keladi. Oddiy yumshatgichda suv kaltsiy va magniy "qattiq" ionlarini yumshatgich idishidagi sintetik qatronli boncuklar tarkibidagi "yumshoq" natriy ionlariga almashtiradi. Qatronli boncuklardagi natriy zaxirasi tugagach, qatronli boncuklar orqali suv/tuz eritmasini (sho'r suv) orqaga yuvish orqali to'ldiriladi. "Rejeneratsiya" deb nomlangan bu jarayon, birlik turiga qarab, har 1000 gallon uchun 15 dan 120 gallongacha suv sarflaydi.

Suv yumshatuvchi regeneratsiyasi

Katta ob'ektlar odatda yumshatgichni qayta tiklash chastotasini taymerlar yoki suv hisoblagichlari yordamida boshqaradi, ular oldindan belgilangan miqdordagi suv qayta ishlanganida regeneratsiya jarayonini boshlaydi. Eng yaxshi tizimlarda suv sifatini nazorat qiluvchi va yumshatilgan suv biroz qattiqlashganda regeneratsiya jarayonini boshlaydigan boshqaruv elementlari mavjud. Kichikroq inshootlarda yumshatgichlarga suv tozalash kompaniyasi xizmat ko'rsatadi va ularning tarkibiy qismlari sotuvchidan tashqarida yangilanadi.

Suv yumshatgichlari, sho'rlanish muammolari va echimlari, shuningdek, suv yumshatgichning barqarorligi bo'yicha sertifikatlangan suv mutaxassislarini qaerdan topish mumkinligi haqida ko'proq bilmoqchimisiz? Arizona suv sifati assotsiatsiyasining veb -saytiga qarang.

Suvni tozalashning bir necha yo'li mavjud. Ikkita keng tarqalgan usul - teskari osmos va filtrlash. Teskari osmosda (RO) suvni toza suvni sho'r suvdan ajratib turuvchi o'ta nozik membrana orqali majburan o'tkaziladi. RO nitratlar, sulfat, natriy va jami erigan qattiq moddalarni olib tashlaydi. Uy xo'jaliklarining RO birliklari past bosim tufayli tizimga kiradigan suvning atigi 5-15 foizini qaytaradi. Boshqacha aytganda, 5 gallon tozalangan suv tayyorlash uchun 40 dan 90 gallongacha suv tashlanadi. Suvni filtrlash odatda musluklar, muzqaymoqlar va boshqa armaturalarga o'rnatilgan ko'mir filtrlari yordamida amalga oshiriladi. Ko'mirning katta gözenekli yuzasi bor, u yoqimsiz hid yoki hidga ega bo'lgan gazlar, xlor va organik ifloslantiruvchi moddalar kabi cho'kindi va iflosliklarni o'zlashtiradi. Teshiklarni va shuning uchun sirt maydonini oshirish uchun faollashtirilgan ko'mir issiqlik bilan ishlangan. Ko'mir filtrlari nitratlar, bakteriyalar yoki erigan minerallar yoki tuzlarni olib tashlamaydi. Ifloslantiruvchi moddalari ko'p bo'lgan suv uchun teskari osmos va ko'mir filtratsiyasini birlashtirgan birlik foydali bo'lishi mumkin.

Suvni nazorat qilish uchun test to'plamlari odatda quduqli uy egalari tomonidan yoki yoqimsiz ta'mi, hidi va/yoki rangi tufayli suvning ifloslanishi gumon qilinganida ishlatiladi. Qo'llash oson bo'lgan to'plamlar suvni umumiy koliformli bakteriyalar, nitratlar, jami erigan qattiq moddalar va pH darajasini tekshiradi.

Isitish va sovutish

SOG'INCH TO'LLARI

Sovutish minoralari keng ko'lamli konditsioner tizimlar va neftni qayta ishlash zavodlarida, kimyo zavodlarida va elektr stantsiyalarida ishlatiladigan aylanma suvni sovutish uchun ishlatiladi. Bu tizimlar turar-joy bo'lmagan yirik suv iste'molchilaridan biri hisoblanadi. Minora orqali tushgan suv bug'lanish tufayli soviydi va keyin minora tepasiga qaytariladi. Havzaga tushadigan suv tepaga qaytgan suvdan o'rtacha 10 daraja sovuqroq. Minoralarning kattaligi tomning yuqori qismidan tortib to juda katta tuzilmalargacha o'zgaradi, minora qanchalik baland bo'lsa, harorat pasayadi.

Sovutish minorasidan suv bug'lanish, siljish va qon ketish natijasida yo'qoladi (suv portlash deb ham ataladigan minora zararlangan mineral birikmalarini olib ketish uchun ishlatiladi). Bu yo'qotishlarni qoplash uchun tizimga qo'shilishi kerak bo'lgan suvga "bo'yanish suvi" deyiladi. Sovutish minorasidan bug'lanish yo'qotishlarini har 100 tonna sovutish uchun daqiqasiga 3 galonga baholasa bo'ladi. Bu shuni anglatadiki, 500 tonna sovutish ta'minlaydigan minora yoki kondensator 24 soatlik ish paytida deyarli 21600 galon bug'lanadi.

Sovutish minorasi suvining samaradorligini oshirishning asosiy usullaridan biri-qon ketish miqdorini kamaytirish (minerallarni tashish uchun ishlatiladigan suv). Qon ketishdan oldin minora orqali suvni ko'p marta aylantirish orqali suvdan foydalanish 20% yoki undan ko'p kamayishi mumkin. Bu yuqori konsentratsiyali nisbatga (yoki kontsentratsiya davrlariga) olib keladi. Sovutgichning kontsentratsion koeffitsienti uning suvdan foydalanish samaradorligini o'lchovidir. Bu koeffitsient qanchalik yuqori bo'lsa, suv tejamkor bo'ladi.

Sovutish minorasidan qon ketishi, uning tuz tarkibiga sezgir bo'lmagan o'simliklarni sug'orish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin. Qayta foydalanishning yana bir varianti-bu suvni tozalash inshootlariga etkazib berish. Bu amaliyotlar nafaqat suvni, balki suv va kanalizatsiya xarajatlarini kamaytirish orqali ham pulni tejash imkonini beradi.

Sovutish minorasini kimyoviy tozalash dasturida sulfat kislotadan foydalanish shkalaning paydo bo'lishining oldini oladi, shuning uchun suv tashlanmasidan oldin yoki pardoz suvi qo'shilishidan oldin aylanishi mumkin. Agar sulfat kislotani tozalash imkonsiz yoki amaliy bo'lmasa, uning o'rniga tizimning pH darajasini nazorat qilish va miqyosini oldini olish uchun karboksilatlangan polimerlar (karboksilatlar) ishlatilishi mumkin. Karboksilatlarning eruvchanligi sulfat kislotadan kam, lekin ishlov berilmaganidan ikki baravar ko'p.

Bu qurilma xavfsiz tarzda erishish mumkin bo'lgan maksimal kontsentratsiya davriga asoslanib portlashni avtomatik ravishda boshqaradi. Olingan o'tkazuvchanlik (odatda santimetr uchun microSiemens, AQSh/sm) bilan o'lchanadi. Supero'tkazuvchilar nazorat qilish moslamasi sovutish minorasi suvining o'tkazuvchanligini doimiy ravishda o'lchashi va suvni faqat o'tkazuvchanlik belgilangan nuqtadan oshib ketishi bilan o'lchashi mumkin.

Bug'lanish sovutgichlari

Bug'lantiruvchi sovutgichlar (botqoq sovutgichlari deb ham ataladi) binoga kirayotgan havoning namligini oshiradi, bu esa uning haroratini pasaytiradi. Qisqa muddat ishlagandan so'ng, bug'lanuvchi sovutgichda qayta aylanadigan suv kirayotgan havo harorati bo'ladi. Bu harorat nazariy jihatdan kiruvchi havo sovishi mumkin bo'lgan eng past haroratdir. Bug'lanadigan sovutgichlarda ishlatiladigan suvni saqlashning asosiy imkoniyati-bu sovutgichlardan chiqadigan oqayotgan suv oqimini kamaytirish. Odatda, to'g'ri ishlashi uchun faqat juda oz miqdordagi oqadigan suv oqimi kerak bo'ladi, lekin afsuski, ko'p miqdorda suv oqadi. Bu nafaqat suvni isrof qiladi, balki sovutgichning sovutish samaradorligini pasaytiradi, chunki suv iloji boricha sovuq bo'lmaydi. Bug'lanish sovutgichlarining uchta keng tarqalgan turi-aylanma nasosli sovutgichlar va aylanma bo'lmagan yoki "bir marta o'tadigan" sovutgichlar. Bug'lanuvchi sovutgichlarning barcha turlaridan qon ketishi suvning tuz tarkibiga sezgir bo'lmagan o'simliklarni sug'orish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin.

Bu turdagi sovutgichda yostiqchadan oqib chiqadigan suv tashlanmasidan oldin bir necha marta ushlanib, aylanib yuradi. Qayta aylanib yuradigan suvdagi ifloslantiruvchi moddalar kontsentratsiyasini nazorat qilish va sovutgichning yostiqchalari shikastlanishining oldini olish, shu bilan uning samarali ishlashini ta'minlash uchun oz miqdorda qon ketishi kerak. Bo'shatish klapanlari kerakli miqdordagi suvni to'kish uchun sozlanishi mumkin. Qayta aylanuvchi bug'lantiruvchi sovutgichlar ish soatiga taxminan 3 gallon suv sarflaydi.

"Damperli nasos" navi avtomatik ravishda har bir necha soatda suv yig'uvchi idishni bo'shatadi va to'ldiradi.

Quruq iqlim sharoitida uskunalar "bir marta" yoki bir martalik suv bilan sovutilishi mumkin. Bu eng ko'p suv talab qiladigan sovutish jarayoni, chunki uskunadan o'tib va ​​soviganidan so'ng, suv ko'pincha tashlab yuboriladi. Bir martalik suv bilan sovutilishi mumkin bo'lgan uskunalarga quyidagilar kiradi: yog'sizlantirish moslamalari, rektifikatorlar, gidravlik uskunalar, rentgen apparatlari, kondensatorlar, yopishqoq vannalar, konditsionerlar, havo kompressorlari, gidravlik presslar, payvandchilar va vakuum nasoslari. Suv bilan sovutiladigan uskunalarning ko'p turlarini energiya tejaydigan, havo sovutadigan modellar bilan almashtirish mumkin. Suvni qayta ishlatish, ichimlik bo'lmagan manbalardan suv ishlatish va bir marta ishlatilgan suvni landshaft sug'orish yoki sovutish minorasi kabi boshqa maqsadlarda qayta ishlatish orqali ham kamaytirish mumkin. Bu amaliyotlar nafaqat suvni, balki suv va kanalizatsiya xarajatlarini kamaytirish orqali ham pulni tejashi mumkin. Arizona shtatining faol boshqaruv hududlarida, ADWR, agar suv qayta ishlatilmasa, o'z qudug'iga ega bo'lgan sanoat korxonalarida bir martalik sovutish suvidan foydalanishni taqiqlaydi.

Qozonxonalar katta isitish tizimlarida yoki ko'p miqdorda texnologik bug 'ishlatiladigan sohalarda qo'llaniladi. Qozon tizimiga suv qo'shilib, uning yo'qotilishini qoplash va qozonni portlatib yuborilganda yo'qolgan suvning o'rnini to'ldirish mumkin. Qaerda bo'lmasin, bug 'kondensatini qo'lga olish va qozonga qaytaruvchi suv sifatida qayta ishlatish kerak. Kondensatni qaytarish tizimi suvni tejaydi, qozonni suv bilan oldindan tozalash xarajatlarini kamaytiradi va energiya sarfini kamaytiradi. Kondensatni qaytarish tizimini o'rnatish orqali qozonning ishlash xarajatlarini 70 foizgacha kamaytirish mumkin. Qozon tizimlari tomonidan suv iste'moli tizimning kattaligiga, ishlatilgan bug'ning miqdoriga va kondensatning qaytish hajmiga qarab o'zgaradi.

Kengayish tanki suvning isishi paytida kengayishi uchun havo yostig'ini beradi. Bu suvni ikki usulda tejaydi: 1) bosimni pasaytirish klapanining bosimni pasaytirish uchun suvni ochishi va tushirishiga to'sqinlik qiladi va 2) shamollatgichni sovutish uchun aralashtirish vanalarida sovuq suvdan foydalanish zaruriyatini yo'q qiladi. pastga tushadi va kengaytirish idishida soviydi. Po'lat kengaytirish tankida havo va suv bir -biriga tegib turadi. Quviq tipidagi kengaytirish tankida havo va suv diafragma bilan ajralib turadi.

NEMLANTIRISH

Namlagichlar bug'lanish orqali havoga namlik qo'shib, nisbiy namlik darajasini oshiradi. Namlagichlarning ikkita asosiy turi bor: xona namlagichlari va markaziy namlagichlar. Xona namlagichlari-bu suv ta'minoti tarmoqlariga odatda ulanmagan, o'z-o'zidan ishlaydigan agregatlar. Ularning suv omborlari qo'lda to'ldiriladi. Markaziy namlagichlar odatda markaziy isitish tizimiga va suv ta'minoti tarmoqlariga ulanadi. Ularning suv omborlari avtomatik ravishda to'ldiriladi.

Humidifiers that have a continuous bleed-off system waste water. In these humidifiers, a constant stream of water leaves the reservoir and enters the sewer system at the same time a constant stream of potable water fills the reservoir. Recirculating humidifiers do not continuously drain and replace water. There are concerns about the possibility that recirculating humidifiers may contribute to “sick building syndrome.” An alternative would be to reuse the discarded water for another purpose, such as irrigating landscapes, rather than sending it to the sewer. Another option is to adjust the humidifiers to discharge the minimum amount of water necessary and avoid excessive bleed-off. Timers can be used to turn humidifiers on or off based on seasonal needs, or to control when water is pumped out of the reservoir to remove mineral build up.

Mist cooling systems have become available to businesses and homeowners as an outdoor cooling option in regions with high temperatures and low humidity. Water is pumped through the system and released in a fine spray which evaporates, forming cool barriers against hot, dry air. Each misting nozzle uses about half a gallon of water per hour. To conserve water, the systems should be operated only when people are using the area. Some systems have sensors to turn misters off when no one is present, or on/off switches that can be activated by customers as needed. It is also desirable to use misters with nozzles than can be independently controlled, to direct nozzles properly so that the system only cools the area intended, and to turn off misters when it is too windy or humid for them to work well.

LAUNDRY

DOMESTIC LAUNDRY

Washing laundry is very water intensive, using approximately 25 percent of a household’s indoor water use. Conventional top-loading washing machines use 39 to 43 gallons of water per load. High efficiency models such as front-loading washers can greatly reduce water use. Small machines (those under 4.0 cubic feet) that use less than 6.5 gallons of water per cubic foot can reduce water use by up to 50 percent. For additional information see: Water and Energy-Saving Tips for Clothes Washers Or, visit the EPA Water Sense and Energy Star websites to find water-efficient clothes washers.

Front-loading washers, also known as horizontal axis (H-axis) washers,are the most efficient washers available, using less than half the water of older, top-loading models. Front-loading washers tumble clothes through a small amount of water instead of using a central agitator in a full tub of water. Because they are only partially filled, they use less water and less energy for heating water. They also use faster spin speeds to extract more water from clothes, thereby reducing dryer time and energy use. The estimated savings per household is approximately 7,000 gallons a year.

Advanced Top-loading Clothes Washers

Advanced top-loading washers use sophisticated wash systems to flip or spin clothes through a reduced stream of water. Many have sensors to monitor incoming water temperature closely. They also rinse clothes with repeated high-pressure spraying instead of soaking them in a full tub of water. These water-saving, top-loading washing machines use an average of 25 gallons per wash compared to the average of 40 gallons per wash for conventional top-loading machines.

COMMERCIAL LAUNDRY

Commercial laundry equipment can be found in hotels, motels, resorts, hospitals and other facilities for washing linens, uniforms, and other items. Prior to regulations enacted in 2005, commercial laundromats often used residential style, top-loading washing machines that were not bolted to the ground. Laundromats are now switching to horizontal-axis and multi-capacity load washing machines that are secured to the ground. For additional information see: Water and Energy-Saving Tips for Commercial Laundry Facilities and Energy Star Commercial Clothes Washers.

The most common instituion-size washing machine is the washer-extractor, which can handle 25 to 400 dry pounds per load. A rotating drum agitates the laundry during washing and rinsing cycles, and spins at high speeds to extract the water. The machines refill with water for each new cycle. There is no internal recycling all water used is discharged to the sewer. Typical water consumption for washer-extractors is 2.5 to 3.5 gallons per pound of dry laundry.

The continuous-batch washer or “tunnel” washer, commonly used in Europe, has recently been installed in many U.S. laundries. In contrast to conventional washers which refill with water for each cycle, continuous batch washers reuse rinse water from all but the first rinse. The washers have one or more modules for each process step, and the laundry items pass automatically from one module to the next. Significant water conservation is achieved due to the use of counter-current flows. Properly operated installations can save 60-70 percent of the volume of water and steam required by washer extractors.

Laundry wastewater reclamation systems recycle wash water. They capture, filter, and treat the water so it can be reused in the next load. A simple recycle system (one that does not treat the reclaimed water) collects discharge from the final rinse of one load and uses it in the first flush of the next load, saving about 10-35 percent. A complex recycling system (one that treats the reclaimed water and uses it in all cycles) can save up to 90 percent. Recycling systems can be cost-effective due to savings in water, soap, energy for heating, and sewer fees. Two types of complex systems are 1) mixed media and 2) ultra filtration. The mixed media system consists of a filter containing plastic beads, anthracite coal and silica an activated carbon column and an ion exchange unit. It first filters out large particles such as lint, then smaller ones such as dirt. After the ion exchange unit removes organic material, the water is sent back to the wash cycle. This system is relatively low maintenance and is available as a packaged unit. It provides approximately 75 percent reuse of water. The second system uses settling, high-rate ultra-filtration, and fixed bed carbon adsorption processes that sends the used water through the carbon bed. Pretreatment with hydrated lime in dry powder form is used to assist the ultra-filtration treatment.

Multi-family housing complexes that have laundry rooms have been found to use less that 1/3 the water when compared to in-unit washers. Tax credits may be available for multi housing complexes and laundromats that replace older washers with new, low-water-use models. Find more information in this Laundry Wise Report.

KITCHEN EQUIPMENT

Kitchens, whether residential or commercial, typically include several water-using appliances, fixtures and equipment. There are many ways to save water in the kitchen. Look for WaterSense and EnergyStar labels, and consider the features described below. For more on commercial kitchens, see the Water Saving Technologies for Commercial Kitchens.

DISHWASHERS

Depending on user behavior and household size, modern, water-efficient dishwashers use less water than washing dishes by hand. Dishwashers can be the most water-efficient option if only operated when full and if dishes are not rinsed before loading. Look for Energy Star and Water Sense labels when choosing a dishwasher. Water-efficient models use an average of only four gallons of water per wash, 32-39 percent less than standard dishwashers, saving up to 1,000 gallons of water per year. See Energy Star Dishwashers

Commercial dishwashers vary in their water use from 2.5 to 8.0 gallons of water per minute, depending on the type of dishwasher. In a stationary rack machine, the dish racks remain in place while they are sprayed with cycles of wash and rinse water. In a conveyor dishwasher, the dishes are placed on a conveyor belt that passes through the machine as dishes are sprayed. The final rinse may include a chemical sanitizing agent that is mixed with water. Most modern dishwashers recirculate the final rinse water and use it for the first rinse of the next cycle. See Energy Star Commercial Dishwashers

GARBAGE DISPOSALS, STRAINERS, TROUGHS & SPRAY VALVES

Garbage disposals grind solid wastes into small particles so that they can be discharged into the sewer. The ground garbage passes into a chamber where it is mixed with water for disposal. Garbage disposals generally use five to eight gallons of water per minute, but have a relatively low duration of operation. Most commercial garbage disposals have solenoid valves that shut off the water when the disposal motor shuts off.

Replacing a garbage disposal with a garbage strainer reduces water use by as much as 40 percent. A recirculating stream of water passes over food waste in the strainer (which sits in the sink's drain) and washes soluble materials and small particles into the sewer, while leaving the large particles to be thrown away in the garbage. The strainer uses about two gallons per minute compared to the five-to-eight gallons per minute of the commercial disposals.

Commercial kitchens often use scraping troughs or conveyors to remove and carry food scraps and other waste to a garbage disposer before the plates go into the dishwasher. The scraping system uses a trough of water that flows at a rate of between five and 15 gpm to carry garbage to the disposer. Conveyors (generally for larger facilities) use water forced through several jets at a rate of three to five gallons per minute to rinse food particles. Recirculating systems that strain out the solids for disposal and return the water to the trough, reduce water use to between three and five gpm. A cost-effective method that uses no water is to manually scrape food particles into the garbage or a garbage strainer before loading plates into the dishwasher.

REFRIGERATORS, ICE MACHINES & ICE CREAM EQUIPMENT

Commercial refrigerators are usually water-cooled. Older units are often cooled with water in a single-pass fashion, wasting thousands of gallons per day. New units contain a closed system where a cooling water loop uses a heat exchanger that transfers heat from pipes containing a refrigerant, to pipes containing water. The heat disperses from the pipes by evaporative cooling. Smaller units, such as those found in residential settings, use an air-cooled condenser as their heat exchanger. In natural convection air-coolers, the air flows freely over the condenser, cooling the refrigerant inside. Forced convection air-coolers use fans to blow the air across the condenser coils. These systems use no water.

Ice machines are water wasters when they use single-pass cooling water to remove heat from the compressors and product. An 800 pound water-cooled ice machine uses an extra 1,300 gallons of water each day to cool the condenser. EPA Energy Star models are approximately 15 percent more energy-efficient and ten percent more water-efficient than their conventional counterparts. Flake ice is typically produced on a rotating evaporation drum. Ice is broken off the drum by an ice cutter and scraped to produce flakes that are thin, randomly shaped, and mostly white or cloudy. A typical water-cooled flake ice machine uses 20 gallons of water per 100 pounds of ice produced. Ice cube machines use more water than flake ice machines because they use warm water to wash over the frozen surface of the cube as it forms. The warm water dissolves and carries away minerals and other substances that would make the cube cloudy. This results in clear cubes made of frozen water that is purer than the source water. A typical air-cooled cube ice machine uses 30 gallons of water per 100 pounds of ice produced and 10-30 gallons two to three times a day to purge the system of minerals. Water cooled cube ice machines can use from 72 to 240 gallons for every 100 pounds of ice. See Energy Star Commercial Ice Machines

Ice cream and yogurt machines are water wasters when they use single-pass cooling water to remove heat from the compressors and product. A typical water-cooled ice cream or frozen yogurt machine uses 2 to 3 gallons per minute (or 1,200 gallons for every eight hours of operation) to cool the condenser whenever the unit is operating. Better alternatives are a closed cooling water loop or an air-cooled model. Air-cooled models use no water. A closed cooling water loop uses a heat exchanger, which transfers heat from pipes containing a refrigerant to pipes containing water. The heat disperses from the pipes by evaporative cooling.

Dipper wells are used for rinsing and holding ice cream scoopers and other utensils. They typically use constantly running water for sanitary purposes. Low-flow systems conserve water, as do hands-free systems that use foot or knee pedals to turn the water on only when needed. Simply turning the flow down or even off during slow periods can save thousands of gallons of water per year.

COOKING EQUIPMENT

A combi-oven is an oven with three functions: convection, steam and combination cooking, thereby replacing stand-alone convection ovens and boiler-steamers. In the convection mode, the oven circulates dry heat which is ideal for pastries and breads. The steam mode injects water into the oven to poach fish, rice, vegetables, and other foods. The combi-oven typically uses nine gallons of water per hour compared to the 40 gallons per hour used by boiler-steamers. Another advantage of a combi-oven is the combination mode, which uses both dry heat and steam to maintain exact humidity levels, providing more control of the moisture levels in food, and cooking food up to 30 percent faster.

Conventional woks run water continuously over the stove to prevent over-heating from the accumulated heat under the cook-top. Waterless or (air-cooled) woks allow the hot air to escape from two small air gaps that insulate the wok stove elements. This eliminates the need to use water as a cooling agent and therefore results in a 100 percent water savings.

Steamers are usually very water intensive, especially the pressureless, boiler-style steamers. Boiler-steamers are connected to a water source and constantly drain water to prevent pressure build-up from the steam. They can consume up to 40 gallons of water per hour, averaging about 175,000 gallons per year. Models with the EPA EnergyStar certification use about ten percent less water, or 30 gallons per hour.

A boilerless steamer (sometimes called "connectionless steamer") is much more water efficient than one that constantly drains water. In a boilerless steamer, the only water used is the amount needed to produce steam. Water is added manually to a reservoir in the bottom of the unit that has its own heating element and is drained at the end of the day. Since there is no connection to a water source, the boilerless steamer uses only about one to two gallons of water per hour, with a potential water savings of 174,500 gallons per year.

IRRIGATION & WATER HARVESTING

In Arizona, up to 70 percent of residential water is used on the landscape. Water used to irrigate landscapes is often wasted due to inefficient irrigation systems. Significant water use reductions can be achieved through the use of new and emerging irrigation technologies.

IRRIGATION EQUIPMENT

An irrigation master valve is typically installed at the point of connection to the water source. The master valve opens whenever any station is watering and closes when no station valves are on. A flow sensor installed just after the master valve detects leaks based on the programmed parameters. When used with a controller that can read a flow sensor, the controller will shut down a station valve when a leak is detected, and then move on to the next station in the program sequence. If connected to a central control system it will send a message back to the central computer about the problem and its location. Although not commonly used in the residential setting, they would provide a safety net for home irrigation systems, preventing uncontained or unnoticed leaks from flowing continuously until discovered.

Sprinkler heads are nozzles or devices, which may or may not rotate, that distribute water under pressure through the air. Sprinklers that spray (often called "spray heads"), do not rotate. They apply water over a circular area in a fan-shaped stream. They have a high application rate, meaning that they they discharge a large volume of water in a relatively short amount of time (at an average rate of 1.4 inches per hour), which can lead to increased evaporation and to run-off. By contrast, rotor sprinkler heads emit a single or multi stream of water that rotates back and forth in a circular pattern. Rotor heads have a lower application rate (at an average rate of .7 inches per hour) and apply water more uniformly than spray heads. When located on a slope, a sprinkler head in the lowest places sometimes continue to flow for a few minutes after the sprinkler turns off. This phenomenon is called "low head drainage" and can be prevented by installing anti-drain check valves.

Bubbler heads are typically used in planters, tree wells, or specialized landscape applications where deep localized watering is preferable. Water from the bubbler head comes through small orifices and either runs down from the emission device or spreads a few inches in an umbrella pattern. Bubbler emission devices are equipped with single or multiple port outlets.

Drip irrigation is a system of valves, tubing and emitters that allows water to drip slowly at the root zone of each plant. These systems are efficient because they water only the root zone and eliminate run-off, water waste, and excessive evaporation. Various sizes of emitters, including multi-outlet emission devices, allow for the application of different gallons per hour in order to match a plant's water requirements. Emitter size can be increased as a plant grows or plugged if a plant dies or no longer needs supplemental irrigation.

Irrigation controllers or timers are programmed to turn an irrigation system on and off based on a preset schedule. Recent advances in controllers have made them even more efficient. "Smart" controllers sometimes called evapotranspiration (ET)- based controllers, automatically adjust the watering schedule according to weather-based information, such as temperature and humidity. (ET is the amount of water lost from the soil through evaporation plus the plant's water loss, both of which are dramatically affected by weather conditions.) This information may be either pre-programmed into the controller based on historic data, or adjusted daily based on a signal from a local weather station or satellite. Smart controllers can reduce irrigation water use by 20-40 percent. Some controllers have sensors (shut-off devices) attached so that watering is temporarily stopped due to rain, wind, high soil moisture or freezing temperatures.

Rain sensors are designed to stop irrigation in response to a specific amount of rainfall, such as 1/8 to one inch. When the sensors dry out (in a day or two), they turn the power to the valves back on. Rain sensors are mounted outside in an open area and are easy to install. They are available in both wireless and hard-wired versions and are connected to the shutoff valve on the common line of the automatic-watering system. Some states and many cities mandate the use of rain sensors in all new sprinkler systems.

Soil moisture sensors measure the level of moisture in the soil and are frequently used in agriculture, on golf courses and in lawns. They are sometimes used in planting beds that have drip irrigation, however, more sensors are needed if plants have differing water needs and root depths. Soil moisture sensors stop irrigation if the soil is wet and resume irrigation when the soil is dry. A good system allows you to set the moisture level at which you want to stop and start irrigation. There are a variety of soil moisture sensor systems on the market at different price levels.

Wind sensors turn off irrigation valves when the wind reaches a preset speed, e.g. 12 – 35 mph. These are more commonly used with automatic sprinkler systems to reduce evaporation and prevent the wind from blowing the spray away from the targeted areas.

Freeze sensors automatically turn off irrigation valves when the temperature drops to a pre-set level, e.g., close to freezing. These are typically used in regions where irrigation systems are not decommissioned for the winter, yet still have a chance of frost.

Sensors are sometimes combined into one unit to eliminate the need for separate sensors and installations. A combination unit that includes wind, rain and freeze sensors is sometimes called a "mini weather station" or "complete weather station." The sensors automatically shut off the irrigation system if there is too much rain or wind, or if it is too cold to irrigate They then reset the system when conditions are favorable.

Installing a meter or sub-meter dedicated to measuring outdoor water usage can reduce sewer fees. Sub-meters quantify the amount of water used for landscaping and therefore not returned to the sewer. If you are unfamiliar with how to read your meter, refer to Reading Your Water Meter.

RAINWATER & GRAY WATER HARVESTING

Rainwater and Gray Water Harvesting are effective methods that can reduce the use of drinking water for landscape irrigation. These methods are even more beneficial when they are coupled with low-water-use and desert adapted plants. You can read more about these topics on our Landscaping page.

A rainwater harvesting system is appropriate for large-scale landscapes such as parks, schools, commercial sites, parking lots and apartment complexes, as well as small-scale residential landscapes. Simple rainwater harvesting systems include gutters, downspouts and yard contouring to direct rainfall to plants. More complex systems store rainfall in rain barrels or cisterns, some equipped with filters and pumps.

Gray water, the wastewater generated from domestic processes such as laundry and bathing (not from kitchen sinks or toilets), comprises 50-80 percent of residential wastewater. Gray-water systems typically direct gray water for irrigation use. Some communities require gray-water systems in new construction, and rebates are sometimes available for installing a gray-water system as a retrofit. All residential systems must follow the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality guidelines.

POOLS & WATER FEATURES

Swimming pools, decorative ponds, fountains and waterfalls can consume high volumes of water through evaporation. The amount of evaporation is related to outside temperatures, wind velocity and other factors. For example, in Phoenix and Tucson, the average evaporation rate is approximately six feet per year, most of which occurs in summer. Other sources of water loss in addition to evaporation are filter backwashing, pool draining, splashing, and leaks. By installing a submeter, variations in water use can be identified, such as unusually high water use caused by leaks, cracks or tears in liners. The meter will help identify abnormal water usage so it can be remedied as soon as it is discovered.

POOLS

A variety of methods can help reduce pool water use. To prevent water lost from unnecessary backwashing, timers can be installed to standardize the backwash cycle duration and frequency to meet actual needs. Using cartridge filters instead of sand or diatomaceous earth can reduce water use by half because they do not need to be backwashed as often. Backwashing a sand filter will use between 250 and 400 gallons of water, and the same amount to refill your pool, e.g. 800 gallons. A filter installed between the sand filter and the main return line allows clean water to be returned to the pool and not be wasted when backwashing. For more water conservation tips, see ADWR Pools & Spas Conservation Fact Sheet

DECORATIVE FOUNTAINS, PONDS & WATERFALLS

Ponds, fountains and waterfalls should recirculate water by having a reservoir pan to hold water and a pump that circulates it. Water may need to be added several times a week depending on the rate of evaporation, unless the feature has a dedicated line and float. Some communities have regulations on recirculated water in play fountains. New products and kits are becoming available that collect and store rainwater for use in fountains, ponds or waterfalls. The water storage units are usually below ground and a pump recirculates the collected rainwater through the water feature systems. Some communities have ordinances that restrict the type and size of water features to help reduce water loss from evaporation.

CAR WASH & OUTDOOR CLEANING

COMMERCIAL CAR WASHES

If you own or operate a commercial car wash, see Water Saving Technologies for Commercial Car Washes.

Of the two main types of commercial car washes, conveyor or in-bay, the conveyor system uses less water. Conveyor systems (where the car moves through a series of cleaning operations) use approximately 44 gallons of water per vehicle and lose 17 percent of that to evaporation and carryout. In-bay systems (where washing equipment is rotated around a stationary vehicle) use approximately 72.5 gallons per vehicle and lose 33 percent of the water to evaporation and carryout. Regardless of the type of car wash, recirculating (recycling) systems are an important part of any water-wise car wash. These systems take soapy run-off water, clean it, and send it back for use on another vehicle.

Self-serve vehicle washes use less water than commercial car washes or washing vehicles at home. Typically, self-serve vehicle car washes have an equipment room where water is mixed with cleaning agents which then come out of a wand or brush. Because customers are unsupervised, they often discard oil and debris in the wash troughs making water recycling difficult. Self serve car washes can save water by using pressure nozzles with flow-rates less than three gpm, deionization equipment rather than water-softening or reverse osmosis systems for "spot-free" rinse options, and reuse of expelled water if reverse osmosis systems are in place. The expelled water could be used for the wash cycles or to irrigate landscapes.

WASHING VEHICLES AT HOME


Washing a vehicle at home can use 80-140 gallons of water, which is more than the amount used at a commercial car wash! If this option is chosen, using an automatic shutoff nozzle will greatly reduce water waste. Also, washing vehicles on grass or gravel prevents water from running down the street (where much of it evaporates and the rest picks up contaminants) and into storm drains (where it delivers the contaminants). See: Water Saving Tips for Washing your Vehicles

OUTDOOR CLEANING EQUIPMENT

Automatic shut-off nozzles have a lever on the back which, when depressed, allows water to flow out of the hose. When released, the water stops, thereby preventing water flow when it is not needed.

A water broom is a type of power washer. It uses air and water pressure to clean surface areas, and is excellent for “light-duty” cleaning such as pool decking and sidewalks.Water brooms use about two gallons of water per minute (gpm) compared to the 8-18 gpm used by a traditional hose nozzle. Using a water broom instead of a hose to clean surface areas can reduce water use by more than 75 percent as well as require less labor and time. Water brooms shouldn’t be used for heavy duty application such as removing bird droppings, since the broom would have to be run several times over the same spot.

LABORATORIES & MEDICAL FACILITIES

Most uses of water in laboratories are relatively small, and generally have limited potential for water conservation. Uses include water for mixing solutions, washing glassware and other equipment, and for sterilizers. The EPA and Department of Energy recommend that laboratories, especially those in large hospitals, look at the potential for generating and collecting non-potable, clean water such as the discharge from once-through cooling systems or reverse osmosis.

For additional information see ADWR Medical & Laboratory Conservation Fact Sheet. For other water uses in medical facilities such as for kitchens. laundry, irrigation, heating & cooling, and plumbing, see the sections above.

LABORATORY FACILITIES

Low-flow aerators are extremely effective at reducing water use. Aerators can be attached to older, high-volume faucets to reduce their flow rate to 2.5 gpm or less. Aerators add air to the flow stream, resulting in a spray-like flow, while maintaining water pressure. Some aerators can reduce water flow to .5 gpm or less, at a fraction of the costs of replacing faucets. The rated flow of an aerator is imprinted on its side.

Traditional hood exhaust systems use water to create a vacuum. Water-saving dry vacuums use air pressure instead of water to create a vacuum. Exhaust hoods may include fume scrubbers (systems that remove fumes and substances from the exhaust before releasing it to the atmosphere). These fume scrubbers use large quantities of water, and therefore should be equipped with recirculating systems.

X-ray, MRI and CT equipment that uses film imaging are water- intensive. Water-conserving imaging equipment use digital technologies which allow the images to be displayed on a screen and saved to a hard-drive. Where film imaging cannot be avoided, use a self-contained image-developing unit, called a "mini-lab," to process the film. These units use chemicals instead of water in the development process and dispose of the spent chemicals in a reservoir adjacent to the mini-lab. Recirculating systems should be used for large wet-chemistry and water-rinse x-ray technologies.

Sterilizers frequently use running streams of water to cool steam from the autoclaves, then discharge the water to the sewer. Sterilizers with recirculation systems (either built-in or retrofitted) use the water multiple times before discharging it into the sewer. A water-saving retrofit kit for autoclaves (pressure chambers for producing chemical reactions) monitors the temperature of the water coming out of the autoclave and adds cold water only when the temperature is greater than 140ºF. Recirculating chiller units are recommended for cooling lab equipment (such as large dry vacuum systems, sterilizers, automated analyzers, etc.), rather than using a stream of water and once-through cooling systems.


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